Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The final paper will include an assessment of a business entity or organization that you are familiar with — Apple Inc. You will create a 10-page (minimum) double-spaced paper that includes the following: · Detailed analysis on how the organization |


The final paper will include an assessment of a business entity or organization that you are familiar with — Apple Inc. 

  You will create a 10-page (minimum) double-spaced paper that includes the following:

·  Detailed analysis on how the organization applies the lessons learned in the course, including the following concepts (select those that are applicable to your selected organization):

o  Fundamentals of leadership, including leadership styles and traits

o  Strategic thinking

o  Emotional intelligence

o  Communication and leadership

o  Organizational culture and climate

o  High performing teams

o  Managing organizational change

o  Problem management and decision making

o  Consensus building and negotiation

o  Ethics and professional codes of conduct

o  Managing conflict

o  Strategic planning

o  Power and Politics

·   Citing and referencing applicable course materials and textbooks, including:

o  Bradberry, T. & Greaves, J. (2009). Emotional intelligence 2.0. San Diego: TalentSmart.  

o  Lewis, James P. (2003). Project leadership. New York: McGraw-Hill.  

o  Lussier, R.N & Achua, C.F. (2012). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development (6th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.  

o  Project Management Institute (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide, 6th Ed.) Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, Inc.  

o  Other academic citations are encouraged, but will not be accepted in lieu of the above.

·  Master’s level academic writing style, including appropriate grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, internal organization including appropriate paragraphs, citations, and references in accordance with the APA Publication Manual.  

·  Overall organization of document to include an introduction, body and conclusion.

Understanding Individual Preferences




Describe Jung Typology Test 4-letter type formula

Describe Managerial Leadership Skills

Describe the Big Five Personality Profile

Discuss how identifying and understanding Individual Preferences impact Leader effectiveness



The Jung Typology Test


How to Read your Score
Me – 2014

E 100%——————–0%——————–100% I



S 100%——————–0%——————–100% N



T 100%——————–0%——————–100% F



J 100%——————–0%——————–100% P




How to Read your Score
Me – May 7, 2020

E 100%——————–0%——————–100% I



S 100%——————–0%——————–100% N



T 100%——————–0%——————–100% F



J 100%——————–0%——————–100% P




Personality & Leadership
(Lewis, Project Leadership)

The Jung Dimensions (basis of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – MBTI):





Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I): How we are energized (outside world – objects, people, animals; or inside world – concepts, thoughts, ideas)

Sensing (S)-Intuition (N): How we prefer to take in information (facts or patterns and meanings in facts)

Thinking (T)-Feeling (F): How we prefer to make decisions (logical analysis or concern for the impact of others)

Judging (J)-Perceiving (P): How we prefer to deal wi


MGMT 560 – Organizational Leadership

Fundamentals of Communication and Leadership


Planning the Message

(Lussier & Achua. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skills Development)

  • What is the goal of the message?
  • Who should receive the message?
  • Will you send the message?
  • When will the message be transmitted?
  • Where will the message be transmitted?


The Oral Message-Sending Process

(Lussier & Achua. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skills Development)

Develop rapport

  • Helps prepare the listener to receive the message

State your communication objective

  • What is the desired end result?

Transmit your message

  • Tell the receiver what is wanted

Check the receiver’s understanding

Ask direct questions and/or use paraphrasing

Get a commitment and follow-up


The Importance of Listening

(Lussier & Achua. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skills Development)

  • Failure to listen is a major reason leaders fail
  • Few people are good listeners
  • Most people have a passionate desire to be heard



The Message-Receiving Process

(Lussier & Achua. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skills Development)


  • Paying attention
  • Avoiding distractions
  • Staying tuned in
  • Not assuming and interrupting
  • Watching nonverbal cues
  • Asking questions
  • Taking notes
  • Conveying meaning

Checking Understanding

  • Paraphrasing
  • Watching nonverbal cues


  • Thinking
  • Waiting to evaluate until after listening


(Lussier & Achua. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skills Development)

  • Is the process of verifying messages and determining if objectives are being met
  • Forms of feedback
  • Questioning
  • Paraphrasing
  • Allowing comments and suggestions
  • Allows leaders to know how they and the organization are progressing to meet objectives
  • Used to measure performance
  • Giving and receiving feedback must be an ongoing process to be effective
  • Forming the Team & Types of Teams


    Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results.

    ~Andrew Carnegie



    Leadership Definition – A Review

    “The knowledge, skills and behaviors needed to guide, motivate, and direct a team, to help an organization achieve its business goals.”


    “Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results.”

    Leadership & Teamwork

    The Project Team Leader is responsible for “directing individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives.”

    High Performing Teams require High Performing Leadership.



    Forming the Team


    Forming the Team

    Charter the team – Articulate the project end state (goals, objectives) – what does success look like?

    Develop a plan to achieve your goals and objectives and build ownership – involve the team in the planning process

    Know yourself (strengths, weaknesses, motivations)

    Know your team (strengths, weaknesses, motivations)

    Define the “5 Rs”

    Build trust

    Celebrate success – learn from setbacks


    Chartering the Team

    Define the following:

    Team Mission

    Background and Context

    Scope of Work


    End State

    Team Composition

    Define Process and Timeline

    Have members sign the charter (if necessary)

    Periodically review the charter


    Forming the Team

    Know Yourself & Your Team

    (Strengths, Weaknesses, Motivations)


    Personality & Leadership
    (Lewis, 2003)

    MBTI Considerations:

    “It is not how well we think, but how well we act in a given role. If our behavior is adaptive to circumstances, so that we act effectively in such circumstances, then we can be said to be intelligent in those circumstances.”

    Idealists: The Intuitive-Feeling (NF) project manager will be best at diplomacy. They are drawn to the humanities. They communicate ideas using words and are concerne

    Introduction to
    Leadership Theory


    Learning Objectives


    Examine leadership theory paradigms

    Apply and evaluate the utility of the leadership theory

    * Primary reference: Lussier & Achua, Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development


    The Leadership Paradigm

    The Leadership Paradigm

    – Is a shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of thinking about, perceiving, studying, researching, and understanding leadership

    – Has changed over the last 60 years during which it has been studied


    Leadership Theories

    The Great Man Theory (1800-1900’s)

    Trait Theories (1930-1950’s)

    Behavioral Theories (1940-1960’s)

    Contingency Theories (1950-1970’s)

    Integrative/Holistic Theories (1970’s-present)


    The Great Man Theory

    Great leaders are born, not made

    Leadership is primarily a male quality

    Popular during the 19th century

    Early leadership research looked at people who were already successful leaders; people of lesser social status had few leadership opportunities hence the idea that leadership is an inherent ability unique to those that were privileged

    Herbert Spencer (The Study of Sociology, 1896) argued, however, that leaders were products of the society in which they lived


    Trait Theory

    Trait studies were conducted during the 1930’s & 1940’s

    Traits were often a prerequisite for promotion

    Attempt to identify the distinctive physical, demographic, and psychological traits of individuals that account for leadership effectiveness

    Examples of Leadership Traits:

    – High levels of effort, ambition, energy and initiative

    – Appearance

    – Aggressiveness

    – Persuasiveness

    – Dominance

    – Self-reliance


    Trait Theory

    Strengths/Advantages of Trait Theory

    – It is valid – a significant amount of research has validated

    the foundation and basis of the theory.

    – It serves as a yardstick against which leadership traits

    of an individual can be assessed.

    – It gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leader element in the leadership process.


    Trait Theory


    Consensus Building and Negotiation



    • Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.
    • In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organization they represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.
    • The point of negotiation is to try to reach agreements without causing future barriers to communications.


    Stages of Negotiation

    The process of negotiation includes the following stages:



    Clarification of goals

    Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome


    Implementation of a course of action



    • When and where will the meeting will take place?
    • Who will attend? 
    • This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. 
    • Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessarily wasting time during the meeting.



    During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward the case as they see it, i.e. their understanding of the situation.  Key skills during this stage are
    listening and
    clarifying.  Sometimes it is helpful to take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put forward in case there is need for further clarification.  It is extremely important to listen, as when disagreement takes place it is easy to make the mistake of saying too much and listening too little.  Each side should have an equal opportunity to present their case.


    Clarifying Goals

    Conflict Management Styles


    Managing Conflict
    (Lussier & Achua)


    Exists whenever people are in disagreement and opposition

    Is inevitable

    Why is managing conflict important?

    An organization’s success is based on how well it deals with conflicts.

    So how can conflict impact an organization?


    The Psychological Contract
    (Lussier & Achua)

    Is the unwritten implicit expectations of each party in a relationship

    Is broken for two primary reasons:

    We fail to make explicit our own expectations and fail to inquire into the expectations of the other parties

    We further assume that the other party(ies) has the same expectations that we hold

    Is the source of conflict when it is broken


    Dysfunctional Conflict versus
    Functional Conflict
    (Lussier & Achua)

    Dysfunctional Conflict

    Is when conflict prevents the achievement of organizational objectives

    Functional Conflict

    Is when disagreement and opposition supports the achievement of organizational objectives

    What are some examples of conflict in your organization?

    Are these conflicts Dysfunctional or Functional?


    What Conflict Management Style Do You Prefer?

    Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI)



    Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI)














    Competing/Forcing is assertive and uncooperative, a power-oriented mode.

    Competing might mean standing up for your rights, defending a position you believe is correct, or simply trying to win.

    Attempting to resolve the conflict by using aggressive behavior to get your own way.

    Is uncooperative and aggressive.

    Creates a win-lose situation.


    (Lussier & Achua)


    Decisions may be better, if the forcer is right


    Overuse leads to hostility and resentment
    toward its user

    Forcers tend to have poor human relations

    Appropriately used when:

    Unpopular action must be taken on important issues

    Commitment by others is not critical

    Maintaining relationships is not critical

    The conflict resolution is urgent



    Power and Politics


    The Meaning of Power

    • Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others
    • The potential to influence others
    • People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess
    • Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person

    Why does having power matter?

    • With power you can:
    • Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble
    • Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate
    • Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget
    • Get items on and off agendas
    • Get fast access to decision makers
    • Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers
    • Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts

    Types of Power

    • Five types of power:
    • Legitimate
    • Reward
    • Coercive
    • Referent
    • Expert


    Legitimate Power

    • Basis: Power granted to a person based on his or her position in the organization
    • In organizations that have weak project management structures, the project leader has very little legitimate power
    • Those with legitimate power can help with providing resources, project team legitimacy, and empowering project team leaders – take advantage of interactions with those in power

    Reward Power

    • Basis: Derives from being in a position to administer rewards that a follower desires
    • Not just money – appreciation, knowledge of how efforts improve the organization, others?
    • Leaders should understand basis of follower’s motivation (intrinsic/extrinsic) and reward accordingly, when possible

    Coercive Power

    • Basis: The ability of a leader to punish followers for not complying with a directive
    • Most project managers do not have this power, however, this is the least desirable form of power in terms of motivating action

    Referent Power

    • Basis: The power leaders gain when people identify with them
    • Lead by example – be role models for others to follow
    • Referent power may be destroyed by immoral, unethical or rude actions

    Expert Power

    • Basis: The leader has important knowl

      MGMT 560 – Organizational Leadership

      Effective Thinking



      “Strategic thinking is an examination of the environment and is an intuitive and creative process that results in the fusion of issues, patterns, interrelationships, and opportunities.” (D. McCauley, National Defense University)

      “The ability to make a creative and holistic synthesis of key factors affecting an organization and its environment in order to obtain sustainable competitive advantage and long-term success. Strategic thinking meshes anticipated requirements with future organizational capabilities to ensure the organization “wins” in the future.” (U.S. Army War College)

      “If you are thinking about how to better posture your organization to succeed in the future, then you are conducting strategic thinking.” (CAPT D.E. Waters, USN, Ret.)

      What is Strategic Thinking?


      “…staffs that support strategic leaders…should be able to think strategically in order to properly support their senior leaders.”

      “ Strategic thinking requires both critical and creative thinking to be effective. In order to think strategically, leaders and their staffs must develop innovative strategic options and then evaluate these ideas through effective critical thinking.”

      (Ref: Waters, D.E., Understanding Strategic Thinking and Developing Strategic Thinkers)

      Why is Strategic Thinking Important?


      Strategic Thinking

      Reference: Meinhart, R.M, Leadership and Strategic Thinking.

      Strategic Thinking

      • Systems thinking – a discipline of seeing wholes. It is a framework for seeing interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static “snapshots.” – Peter Senge
      • Thinking in time – the use of history or past experiences. An understanding of why occurrences happened.
      • Ethical thinking – considering ethical dimensions of ambiguous, complex issues to ensure that costly mistakes or blind spots do not occur.
      • Critical thinking – the deliberate, conscious, and appropriate application of reflective skepticism.
      • Creative thinking – the ability to produce novel ideas that are valued by others.


      Systems Thinking

      (Peter Senge – The Fifth Discipline)

      MGMT 560 – Organizational Leadership

      Leading Change

      Harrisburg University of Science & Technology


      Harrisburg University of Science & Technology


      “The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not the turbulence; it is to act with yesterday’s logic.“

      – Peter Drucker

      “Change is the law of life and those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.”

      – John F. Kennedy

      “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed, citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.”

      – Margaret Mead

      “If you always do what you’ve always done, you’ll always get what you’ve always got.”

      – Anonymous

      “I alone cannot change the world, but I can cast a stone across the waters to create many ripples.”

      – Mother Teresa

      “The rate of change is not going to slow down anytime soon. If anything, competition in most industries will probably speed up even more in the next few decades.”

      – John P. Kotter

      Harrisburg University of Science & Technology


      Thoughts on Change

      Harrisburg University of Science & Technology

      Organizational Change: An alteration in an organization’s alignment with its external environment

      Change can be transformational or incremental

      Organizational change is any transition that requires a change in human performance

      Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F., Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development.

      Leading Change & Transition



      Understanding Change


      Understanding Change

      Leading Change

      (Kotter, 2012)

      • Patterns of success:
      • Associated with a multi-step process that creates power and motivation
      • Process is driven by high-quality leadership, not just excellent management
      • Aspects of Management: planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, controlling, problem solving
      • Aspects of

        Problem Management and Decision Making


        What is Problem Management & Decision Making?

        Problem Management – ?

        Decision Making – ?


        What is Problem Management & Decision Making?

        Problem Management – Activities required to diagnose the root cause of incidents and to determine resolution to those problems.

        Decision Making – The thought process of selecting a logical choice from the available options. When trying to make a good decision, a leader must weigh the positives and negatives of each option, and consider all the alternatives.


        Some Bad Decisions…

        “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” –Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977

        “Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” — Lord Kelvin, president, Royal Society, 1895.

        “We don’t like their sound, and guitar music is on the way out.” –Decca Recording Co. rejecting the Beatles, 1962.

        “This ‘telephone’ has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us.” — Western-Union internal memo, 1876. Alexander Bell offered the patent for the Telephone to Western-Union in 1876 for $100,000. They declined. The telephone patent has been estimated as the most valuable patent of all time.

        “Drill for oil? You mean drill into the ground to try to find oil? You’re crazy.” — Drillers who Edwin L. Drake tried to enlist to his project to drill for oil in 1859


        Some Good Decisions…

        – Apple’s decision to chase the prize of the first saleable PC created an industry.

        – Henry Ford’s decision to start his own company in 1903 led to the first mass production line, created a mass market in automobiles, launched a corporate giant, changed perceptions of travel, led to the establishing of a variety of other industries, and provided a blueprint for industrial production.

        – In 1981, a group of 13 senior Harley-Davidson executives led by Vaughn Beals bought the company. They celebrated with a victory ride from the company’s factory in York to its headquarters in Milwaukee. Then they made a great decision: The new owners started the Harley Owners Group (H.O.G.) to get customers more involved with the brand. It worked.

        – The New Coke fiasco of 1985 was one of the worst decisions on record. So, wherein lies the greatness? The decision to go back to the original recipe was brave and (relatively) speedy. We all screw up. The brave thing to do is to hold your hands up and admit it.


        Decision Making Models


        Decision Making Models

        Incremental M

        Strategic Planning – An Overview


        (Ref: Waters, D.E., Understanding Strategic Thinking and Developing Strategic Thinkers)

        Strategic Thinking



        WHAT IS




        Strategic planning is clarifying the overall purpose and desired results of an organization, and how to achieve those results.


        • The life cycle or stage of development of the organization
        • The culture of people in the organization
        • Types of issues the organization is currently facing
        • The rate of change in the external environment of the organization.

        Typically, strategic planning is vision-based or goals-based, in which an organization identifies the results they want to achieve in the future.  They develop a vision of what the organization and its customers or clients will look like at some point in the future, and then articulate what they have to do to achieve that vision.  They work from the future to the present.

        Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD – Authenticity Consulting, LLC; From the Free Management Library

        Strategic Planning


        • “A disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it.”
        • “Strategic planning comprises a set of concepts, procedures, and tools.”
        • “Strategic planning is no substitute for leadership.”

        Ref: Dr. John M. Bryson, “Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations” (2004)

        Strategic Planning






        Why Strategic Planning?


        Increase value/capabilities

        A requirement/mandate

        Changing internal and or external environments

        Ensure/facilitate continuity

        Identify/mitigate risk

        Prioritize resources

        Build consensus

        Improve internal, external relationships

        Develop ownership

        Build community support

        Control your future




        Benefits of Strategic Planning

        Provides orderly growth and competitive survival

        Stimulates the organization to be more responsive to the needs of customers

        Simulates the future

        Forces the setting of g

        The Fundamentals of Emotional Intelligence


        Learning Objectives


        • Define Emotional Intelligence (EQ) competencies
        • Describe the EQ Leadership Competencies
        • Personal Competence

        – Self (Emotional) Awareness

        – Self (Emotional) Management

        • Social Competence

        – Social (Emotional) Awareness

        – Relationship Management

        • Team Leadership
        • Understand how to develop EQ
        • Reflect on individual EQ strengths and weaknesses


        What is Emotional Intelligence?


        Anyone can get angry—that is easy… but to [get angry with] the right person, to the right extent, at the right time, for the right reason, and in the right way is no longer something easy that anyone can do.


        Greek philosopher and tutor to Alexander the Great

        Emotional Intelligence: How leaders handle themselves and their relationships; the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions.

        Emotionally mature and competent leaders are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses. They spend their energy on self-improvement, while immature leaders usually waste their energy denying that there is anything wrong or analyzing the shortcomings of others. Mature, less defensive leaders benefit from feedback in ways that immature people cannot.

        FM 6-22: Army Leadership


        Emotional intelligence is a greater determinant of leader success than purely cognitive skills or technical ability.

        – James P. Lewis, Project Leadership

        Two thirds of us are typically controlled by our emotions and are not yet skilled at spotting them and using them to our benefit…too often, we lack the skills to manage our emotions in the heat of the challenging problems we face.

        • Bradberry & Greaves, Emotional Intelligence 2.0

        No matter what leaders set out to do – whether it’s creating strategy or mobilizing teams to action – their success depends on how they do it. Even if they get everything else right, if leaders fail in this primal task of driving emotions in the right direction, nothing they do will work as well as it could or should.

        • Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of EI

        As a PM, I hold a pragmatic view of emotio

        MGMT 560 – Organizational Leadership

        Ethics and Professional Codes of Conduct




        • a system of moral principles: the ethics of a culture
        • the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc.: medical ethics; Christian ethics
        • that branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions

        Formal vs Informal

        • Formal Ethics
        • Code of Conduct
        • Oath
        • Board of Ethics
        • Informal Ethics
        • No formal governing body
        • No accountability, other than from client
        • No formal repercussions

        Making an Ethical Decision

        Recognize the ethical dilemma

        Ask yourself, is this the start of a slippery slope

        One slip allows the next slip to happen more easily

        Would you want your decision to the problem broadcast to the world?

        Ethical Situations

        • Maintaining the integrity of company databases in the face of requests to use the data inappropriately
        • Providing truthful information on the status of projects, budgets and profits even when there are problems – being accountable for success and failure
        • Standing firm on a decision despite its unpopularity
        • Reporting suspected unethical behavior of others despite personal discomfort
        • Not developing personal relationships with vendors/ customers/outside agencies – potential conflict of interest issues

        Principles for Creating Ethical Cultures

        • Principle 1: The only way to sustain Compliance is through Culture

        – Employees want to be part of organizations whose values mirror their own

        – Organizations need to reduce fear, encourage accountability and live by a common set of values that build trust

        Principles for Creating Ethical Cultures

        • Principle 2: Corporate culture reflects the values of the leaders
        • If Leaders do not embody the ethical standards, then
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