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Refer to attached document. Use Ch 9, 13, and 14

Module 5 Discussion

Review Chapter 9 and read Chapters 13-14 then answer the questions below:

a. Discuss the similarities and differences between the career counseling processes for men, women, and sexual minorities.

b. Discuss the process of Multicultural Career Counseling

c. What resources can be used by clients with special needs to cope with their problems?

d. What are the major problems facing individuals who bring special concerns to the career counseling process?

Chapter 9 Career Counseling for Clients with Unique Concerns: The Disabled, Economically Disadvantaged, Veterans, and Older Workers

Things to Remember

How the career counseling approaches discussed in earlier chapters apply to the groups highlighted in this chapter

The groups that may require special consideration in the career counseling process and the issues they bring to the counselor

One or two strategies that may be used in career counseling and career development programming for each group discussed

The two previous chapters were devoted to providing career counseling to women, GLBT individuals (sexual minorities), and cultural and ethnic minorities. At this point, readers may be wondering if they need to develop an unlimited number of approaches to help in the career development process. Career counselors with a postmodern perspective might subscribe to that point of view; I do not. However, this chapter supports their position to some degree, particularly as it concerns counseling disabled persons, because much of the process of helping disabled clients deals with the historical context and the current impact of educational and work environments on their functioning. However, Fabian and Perdani’s (2013) position that none of the theories that have been advanced are adequate to explain either the career counseling process or the career development of the disabled because of the heterogeneity of this group is undoubtedly correct.

One aspect of career counseling simply involves the application of sound counseling techniques. Another deals with cultural sensitivity and the importance of self-efficacy in occupational choice and implementation (Lent, 2013). Specific knowledge of a client, his or her unique needs, and their context is also required for success. Nowhere is this latter point more obvious than when dealing with the client groups addressed in this chapter. However, after reading this chapter you will not be an expert in providing career counseling to the vast array of clients who request career counseling. If you expect to be successful, you will need additional study and supervised practice. Hopefully, this chapter will whet your appetite for more study in order to work with clients with different backgrounds. The client groups discussed in this chapter include:

Disabled individuals, including those with physical and mental disabilities

Workers who have been displaced because of economic conditions or other factors

Economically disadvantaged workers

Delayed entrants to the workforce, including retirees who return to work, military personnel transitioning to the civilian workforce, and ex-offenders

Older workers, including people who prefer work to retirement because of personal satisfaction and financial need

The primary objective of the dis

Chapter 13 Preparing for Work

Things to Remember

The many options open to American workers to attain the education and training they need prior to employment

The magnitude of the high school dropout problem and sources of assistance and training for dropouts

The major sources of financial aid for postsecondary education and how it can be located

It is common knowledge that there is a positive relationship between the educational level attained and lifetime earnings. To be sure, a tackle in the National Football League makes more than the orthopedic surgeon that reconstructed his broken arm, and rock stars make more money than almost everyone else. It is also the case that educational attainment is not accompanied by a written guarantee that the completion of a bachelor’s degree comes with a written guarantee of employment or, if graduates are able to land a job, a salary that guarantees a comfortable lifestyle. College graduates are very often underemployed, which in plain English means that they make less money than their educational attainment would lead them to expect. What is more, many college graduates cannot find jobs at all. The fact is that many people who graduate from college make poor occupational choices that offer little opportunity after graduation.

Preparing for work begins with choosing a job that suits the individual’s talents, followed by getting the best possible education or training for that job. Phase two of the path to employment requires the development of job acquisition skills: locating, contacting, interviewing for, and negotiating for the best offer. Occupational choice is the beginning. Accepting a job is a midpoint. Continuing to improve one’s skills and continuing in a lifelong search completes the process.

Education is often touted as the road out of poverty, but there is increasing doubt that our schools are up to setting poor people on the right path. Some believe that our educational institutions, particularly our public K to 12 schools, are rapidly becoming second-class institutions that serve our society poorly. They point to National Educational Assessment Program data that compares U.S. students with those in other developed countries via standardized test results to support their case. The bottom line is that typical American students do less well than students in other countries, but that is not the entire story. Jerry Trusty and I (Brown & Trusty, 2005) reviewed the data and came to a different conclusion: Our schools are failing poor white and minority students to the greatest degree. If that conclusion is correct, our goal of helping marginalized groups attain economic equity is, at best, difficult.

As a career counselor, you have two tasks to perform. First, familiarize yourself with the educational opportunities that are available to your clients and teach them how

Chapter 14 Facilitating the Global Job Search in a Digital Age

Things to Remember

The numerous uses of the Internet in the job search process

The skills needed by the job hunter

Types of job-placement services available to the job hunter

The approaches to job placement used by educational institutions

Twenty-two million workers were unemployed or underemployed in November, 2013. Underemployed workers are those workers who are employed part-time and are seeking full-time employment. There are also likely to be millions of workers who are employed full time and want to change jobs. The result: Job seekers are facing one of the most difficult employment climates since the Great Depression, when the unemployment rate ranged from approximately 16 percent in 1932 to about 14.5 percent in 1940 (History.com, 2013). Fortunately, today’s job hunter has a variety of resources available that were undreamed of until the 1930s. For example, the United States Employment Security Agency was not initiated until 1933 (Guzda, 1983).

Unfortunately, job creation in the United States has not kept pace with the demand for jobs. It also seems clear that job growth in some other countries, particularly China and India, may outpace job growth in the United States, partially because lower labor costs allow them to compete successfully with the United States and the Eurozone. It seems certain that serious job hunters will consider international jobs with increasing frequency now and in the future. However, job hunters—including dropouts, high school and college graduates, veterans, displaced adults, and others—should look first at the American workplace. Regardless of the geographic region targeted, individuals need a variety of traditional and contemporary job hunting skills, including identifying job openings with websites such as CareerOneStop and Monster, using software packages and websites, posting resumes and filing job applications on the Internet, and engaging in virtual job interviews with Skype and other software programs if they are to find suitable employment. It also means that cultural competency and understanding must take center stage for workers who hope to be successful in securing employment in other countries. This chapter begins by addressing the job search and then focuses on using placement services and other agencies in the job search.

The Job Search

The job-search process is fraught with anxiety for job seekers, whether they are seeking their first jobs or looking for new ones. Gaining employment not only ensures economic stability but also validates the worth of an individual to some degree. Those who have lost their jobs as a result of economic downturns, technological advances, or other reasons may have already suffered blows to their self-esteem; success in the job-search process may become even more import

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