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PADM 550

Education Policy Brief Assignment Instructions


The purpose of this assignment is to apply the May, Can, Should model through analysis of a specific education policy. An effective tool for finding this legislation is through and the cost of the legislation through the Congressional Budget Office at


For the analysis paper, this is best done in the following manner:


Application of the Biblical principles – when discussing the topic of the week, make sure to apply the Biblical principles discussed in question 1 of the Synthesis paper to the specific policy that you’re discussing. How does it meet natural law, inalienable rights, federalism, etc.?

Constitutional authority – what is the Constitutional authority for the federal government to get involved? Avoid the use of the General Welfare clause as it becomes a catch-all for anything that a politician wants to get passed.


Political feasibility – what is the likelihood that the policy will become law? What is the political and social support for the policy?

Financial feasibility – what is the policy expected to do to the national debt or spending? For example, the new COVID stimulus just put us another $2 trillion in debt but was widely supported by both politicians and the public.

Practical feasibility – what are the logistical resources needed for implementation (buildings, personnel, new programs, etc.) and what are the steps for implementation (ex; the Affordable Care Act needed functional websites in order to be implemented, the lack of these created severe problems with implementation). 


Relate this back to specific Biblical and Constitutional authorities and discuss whether or not the policy should be supported based on this and the feasibility of implementation.

The goal of this is to critically analyze an education policy to objectively determine if the federal government should be legitimately involved in the policy being discussed and if the policy is right for the country.

You are expected to submit a 1 1/2–2-page paper (not including the title page, abstract, and reference page) in current APA format in which the May-Can-Should model is applied in the context of the policy focus. Be certain to emphasize a fo

Education Policy, Home Schools, and Christian Schools


Good morning. I’m Professor Cynthia Dunbar, School of Law and I want to talk to you a little bit about education, educational policy, and its connection with the civil government. I’m reminded of a quote by Augustine talks about when he looks back, he looks to the ancients to understand the distinctions between those things which would seem to be alike, which are really different. And the subtle difference that we’ve encountered today in our modern day. What I like to call socialized education policy is the compulsion at the hand of the civil government. The civil government is structured to be the sword tear of those who do evil. It is to promote good at the sanction evil. And instead has become an all-pervasive controlling entity that invades into every part of our lives. What areas that the Founding Fathers originally deemed would be separate and distinct from civil government control. One of the largest areas that they have gained control over, husband, education, educational policy, and trying to create a homogenous society. What I find interesting is that we have moved forward by the secular sacred ideology based upon Play-Doh of dualism and moved away from the Judeo Christian understanding of jurisdiction. And let me break that down for you. In layman’s terminology, the Bible gives us a clear framework for where the civil government is to provide and have jurisdiction or authority. Any area that they go beyond authority is all authority is given by God, becomes raw tyrannical power. It’s the viewpoint that gave the founders the insight to draw a very high barriers from the civil government going beyond into areas of our lives. They deemed inappropriate. It’s the very basis for the establishment of the Bill of Rights saying that Congress shall make no laws. Because it was an understanding that the civil government only got to extend so far and that the remaining areas of jurisdiction where reserved to the states and the people, and specifically to those areas that the Bible talks about personal jurisdiction, familial jurisdiction, and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. And this may sound like big words, but basically what that means is those personal areas. The areas such as our religious liberties, where we get to worship God according to the dictates of our conscience. It’s a very personal area that we have control over. The founders understood the civil government had absolutely no right to control or invade. The same thing with the millennial jurisdiction, which is simply the brights and the family. The area where the family is to control. The areas where the family is responsible before God. And when we look at that, those also protect our religious liberties. Because Madison, who was known as the father of our Constitution, is the fourth president. He basically detailed very clearly that religion is our duties owed to God


(PAGE 328) Chapter 10 Education Policy

Educated in debt. Reports in recent years show that about three-quarters of recent graduates finished school with a loan debt, and the average debt is now over $33,000. The photo illustrates how many students feel the weight of this debt.

(PAGE 329) In 2018, nearly forty-three million Americans held some form of student debt, with total loans approaching $1.5 trillion.1 Student debt has been in the news often over the past few years, particularly in accounts about how this debt affects individuals’ dreams and futures, both subjects of rising concern. In January 2014, the White House convened a higher education summit that included over one hundred college and university presidents and members of the administration to discuss the issue of increasing access to college for low-income students. During the summit, participants presented what their institutions were doing as a commitment to improving opportunities for poor students to access a higher education and develop themselves for a better future. Both President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama addressed the summit and shared their own stories regarding the importance of a college education. Ms. Obama stated, “Right now, we’re missing out on so much potential because so many promising young people simply don’t believe that college can be a reality for them.”2 There are many factors that may lead one to believe that college may not be a reality, particularly for a low-income student, but one of the more important factors must be the increasing cost of college. During his time in office, President Obama often raised concerns about the increasing cost of college times, and he attempted as well to use his bully pulpit to drive home this point and convince state governments to reverse the trend of decreasing public support for higher education and encourage colleges and universities to be more cognizant of the cost increases that so greatly affect their students. President Trump and his education secretary, Betsy DeVos, have also raised concerns about student debt and college costs, citing the rising cost of tuition and the push for four-year degrees when shorter technical training may be more effective for students’ future careers.3 State support for higher education is much lower than in the past, and among the reasons are the rising costs in other areas of state spending, such as Medicare and state prisons, and a desire to keep taxes low. These are seen as higher priorities than spending on public higher education. Public colleges and universities often are forced to make up for lost state dollars by increasing tuition, This, in turn, can lead to more borrowing by students to pay for their education.

Many high school students and their parents are well aware of the plethora of college ranking systems—perhaps the most well known being the assessment



“Making the


Persuasive summary of the key issues supporting your decision to support or reject the
legislation. This is where you as a political leader speak to the heart.

Explaining why this is worthy of being focused on by your party (in light of what the party
is trying to accomplish in Congress)

Make the case knowing that you might be making enemies for supporting (or opposing)
this piece of legislation

Politics is a battle of ideas and agendas—how are you going to make the case knowing
that you might make enemies, and knowing that if your party leadership focuses on your
legislation, it might mean that someone else’s agenda will be stymied?


ï‚· Is the piece of legislation
supported by Biblical principles?

ï‚· Is the piece of legislation in
keeping with the enumerated
powers listed in the

Political Feasibility: Does the bill have a chance of passing the House and Senate and
being signed by the President? What public opinion polls are relevant?

Financial Feasibility: How much would the legislation cost, particularly in light of current
budget constraints? What impact would there be on the economy?

Practical Feasibility: what are the key hurdles for implementing this legislation in terms of
timing, logistics, resources, and technology? As a lawmaker, you have to anticipate
those challenges in order to weigh the merits of the legislation.

The Congressional Budget Office provides financial estimates of proposed bills. It is recommend
that you start with this site because it provides you with a summary of the bill and provides
financial analysis that you will need for your “Financial Feasibility” study.

You can use its search feature to find bills you would be interested in using for your policy brief.
From the main page, scroll down to the “Find Analyses” section and click the “Cost Estimates” link:

Use the search tool in the upper left hand corner to put in your search topic. It can be a specific bill,
or a general issue, like “abortion”.

Note that the search tool only works on a year-by-year basis, so if you do not know exactly what are
looking for, you will need to use the drop down menu to select different years. The CBO site
contains analyses as far back as 1998.


CONGRESS.GOV, provided by the Library of Congress: allows you to type in a key word (such as
abortion) and it will list any bills that are dealing with that issue and where it is in the approval


Access the Government Databases page for

ï‚· Lexis-Nexis Legal Search (provides federal and state case law)
ï‚· ProQuest Congressional
ï‚· Many other policy related sites

Government Research Guide

GovEngine: a privately run but free web site directory to the governments of all 50 states, including
their legislatures. From there students can find state laws & statutes.

Running head: H. R. 312 1

H.R. 312 “The Mars Exploration Act”

Kahlib J. Fischer

February 11, 2015

PADM 550-B01

Dr. Kahlib Fischer

H.R. 312 2

Defining the Problem

Space exploration has been limited since the moon landing to space station visits and the

deployment of the Hubble telescope and satellites (2015). In 2012, President Obama signed into

law H.R. 312, “The Mars Exploration Act” (2012). This bill provides funding for the

development and deployment of: 1) the “rovers”; 2) deep space transportation for humans; and 3)

laboratory and housing facilities on Mars (Robinson & Smith, 2012).


Biblical guidelines: Of course, the Bible says nothing about space exploration. Government is

charged primarily with protecting the inalienable rights of its citizens (Fischer). HR 312 does

not violate these rights. The Biblical notion of “sphere sovereignty” implies that there are other

spheres of society, such as non-profits and industry, which might be considered as participants in

space exploration (Monsma, 2008). In the past, space exploration has been linked to national

defense, for fear that other nations would gain the upper-hand in space and use that advantage

against American citizens (Neuhaus, 2012). Since government has a divine mandate to protect

its citizens, space exploration might be supported.

Constitutional guidelines: The “common defense” portion of the preamble supports passage of

this bill. Article 1 section 8 provides further points of support: the promotion of science and

progress, the development of a sound military, and the regulation of commerce with foreign



Political Feasibility: Generally, the public favors further mars exploration and colonization

(Smith, 2014). The passage of the bill was largely bi-partisan, but a significant Republican

minority tried to block passage arguing that the funding was not present for the bill and that the

H.R. 312 3

President was merely doing this to distract from criticism of his health care legislation and other

scandals (Neuhaus, 2012). Since passage, some experts have argued that Mars colonization is

not obtainable as NASA is currently constructed and has argued for either repeal of HR 312 or

significant modification (Richards, 2015).

Financial feasibility: Total cost of the bill was estimated at $20.5 billion, according to the

Congressional Budget Office (“H.R. 312”). At the time of passage, Democrats and Republicans

were grappling with the debt ceiling crisi

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