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PROJECT : Effects of social media on Academic Performance for College Students

Find a peer-reviewed article that discusses a mediator or a moderator. You are encouraged to find an article related to your final project topic, but you may also use one of the articles listed here:

Relationships Among Race, Education, Criminal Thinking, and Recidivism: Moderator and Mediator Effects

Mediators and Moderators of Functional Impairment in Adults With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Describe the nature of the relationship that the mediator or moderator has to the independent and dependent variable.

Does the general way that the author describes the mediator or moderator seem to fit with the process outlined by Baron and Kenny? Try not to get too bogged down with the statistics of the mediator and moderator tests, focus on the general principles.

Available online at


Comprehensive Psychiatry 55 (2014) 489–496

Mediators and moderators of functional impairment in adults with
obsessive–compulsive disorder

Eric A. Storcha,b,⁎, Monica S. Wua,c, Brent J. Smalld, Erika A. Crawforda, Adam B. Lewina,b,
Betty Hornga, Tanya K. Murphya,b

aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA

cDepartment of Psychology, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
dSchool of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA


The current study examined correlates, moderators, and mediators of functional impairment in 98 treatment-seeking adults with
obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants completed or were administered measures assessing obsessive–compulsive symptom
severity, functional impairment, resistance against symptoms, interference due to obsessive–compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms,
insight, and anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that all factors, except insight into symptoms, were significantly correlated with functional
impairment. The relationship between obsessive–compulsive symptom severity and functional impairment was not moderated by patient
insight, resistance against obsessive–compulsive symptoms, or anxiety sensitivity. Mediational analyses indicated that obsessive–compulsive
symptom severity mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive–compulsive related impairment. Indeed, anxiety
sensitivity may play an important contributory role in exacerbating impairment through increases in obsessive–compulsive symptom
severity. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive–compulsive symptom severity and obsessive–compulsive
related impairment. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating
neuropsychiatric condition characterized by obsessions (i.e.,
recurrent and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses) and/
or compulsions (i.e., repetitive behaviors or mental acts
performed to reduce distress) [1]. Although the severity of
obsessive–compulsive symptoms is directly associated with
the degree of functional impairment experienced [2–5], this
relationship is not absolute; there are other variables that
contribute to understanding who is at greater risk of
compounded impairment and which mechanisms operate in
influencing impairment. Accordingly, this study extends the
literature by examining factors believed to be theoretically
relevant in understanding impairment among treatment-
seeking adults with OCD.

⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Pediatrics

2014, Vol. 21(1) 82 –91
© The Author(s) 2012
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/1073191112436665

Traditional social science theories frequently offer single-
variable explanations for complex behaviors. This is par-
ticularly true of efforts to explain crime. Crime has been
ascribed to social disadvantage, family structure, peer rela-
tions, opportunity, and a host of other factors but only occa-
sionally (e.g., Thornberry, 1987) do we see serious attempts
to integrate these concepts. For research, policy, and clini-
cal reasons, the desire on the part of many in the field to
have an integrated perspective is strong. In fact, three of the
most currently popular theories of crime, Moffitt’s (1993)
dual trajectory model, Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990)
self-control model, and Sampson and Laub’s (1993) age-
graded life-course model of informal social control, have
sought to integrate traditional sociological concepts with
principles from biology, psychology, and economics,
respectively. Despite these promising developments, the
field of criminology remains a field dominated by single-
variable theories. As such, it has a long way to go before it
can offer a broad-based integrated perspective on crime. It
is my contention that greater progress could be made toward
developing a broad-based integrated perspective on crime if
scholars working in the fields of criminology and criminal
justice would examine moderating and mediating effects
between variables from different models.

When discussing moderator and mediator variables the
first order of business is properly defining the terms because
they are often confused with each other even though they
represent two distinct processes. As outlined in a classic
paper by Baron and Kenny (1986), a moderator affects the
direction or strength of the relationship between an inde-
pendent or predictor variable and a dependent or outcome
variable, whereas a mediator accounts, in part or in whole,
for the relationship between an independent or predictor
variable and dependent or outcome variable. To say that
race moderates the criminal thinking–recidivism relation-
ship means that the criminal thinking–recidivism rela-
tionship is weaker or reversed for some races than others
(e.g., Caucasian vs. African American). To say that educa-
tion mediates the race–recidivism relationship means that
education accounts, at least in part, for the race–recidivism

436665 ASM21110.1177/10
© The Author(s) 2012

Reprints and permissions:

1Federal Correctional Institution–Schuylkill, P.O. Box 700, Minersville,
PA 17954, USA
2Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Glenn D. Walters, Department of Criminal Justice, Kutztown University,
Kutztown, PA 19530-0730, U

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