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750 words altogether

Based on readings in Covey (1991), reviews of Module 4 materials, and library research, respond to the following:

1. What skill(s) do you think an effective leader should develop that would enable them to spend more time on leadership issues and less time on management issues?

2. Is management an art or a science and/or both?

3. Identify an approach in Covey (1991) that can be used for resolving managerial issues.

Organization and Structure

· Write one paragraph for each response item; each paragraph should contain a minimum of 250 words

· Follow APA rules: use appropriate headers, cite data sources

· Include a minimum of two in-text citations in each paragraph

Encyclopedia of Management 6th Edition – Finals/ 2/17/2009 06:44 Page 11

conducting any human activity’’ and science as ‘‘any skill
or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a
principle.’’ Reflected in the differences in these definitions
is the use of precision in science, in that there is a partic-
ular, prescribed way in which a manager should act. Thus,
management as a science would indicate that in practice,
managers use a specific body of information and facts to
guide their behaviors, but that management as an art
requires no specific body of knowledge, only skill.

Conversely, those who believe management is an art
are likely to believe that there is no specific way to teach
or understand management, and that it is a skill borne of
personality and ability. Those who believe in management
as an art are likely to believe that certain people are more
predisposed to be effective managers than are others, and
that some people cannot be taught to be effective manag-
ers. That is, even with an understanding of management
research and an education in management, some people
will not be capable of being effective practicing managers.

FOUNDATIONS OF THE
MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE
PERSPECTIVE

Practicing managers who believe in management as a
science are likely to believe that there are ideal managerial
practices for certain situations. That is, when faced with a
managerial dilemma, the manager who believes in the
scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that
there is a rational and objective way to determine the
correct course of action.

This manager is likely to follow general principles
and theories and also by creating and testing hypotheses.
For instance, if a manager has a problem with an employ-
ee’s poor work performance, the manager will look to
specific means of performance improvement, expecting
that certain principles will work in most situations. He
or she may rely on concepts learned in business school or
through a company training program when determining a
course of action, perhaps paying less attention to political
and social factors involved in the situation.

Many early management researchers subscribed to
the vision of managers as scientists. The scientific manage-
ment movement was the primary driver of this perspective.
Scientific management, pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor,
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and others, attempted to
discover ‘‘the one best way’’ to perform jobs. They used
scientific processes to evaluate and organize work so that it
became more efficient and effective. Scientific manage-
ment’s emphasis on both reducing inefficiencies and on
understanding the psychology of workers changed man-
ager and employee attitudes towards the practice of man-
agement. See Exhibit 1 for a summary of the principles of
scientific management.

FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT
AS AN ART PERSPECTIVE

Practici

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