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PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 8 Understanding Assignment
Question 1In older women, osteoporosis is thought to be primarily because of
dietary inadequacies.
estrogen deficiency.
malabsorption syndrome.
inactivity.
Question 2Clinical manifestations of hyponatremia include
weak pulse, low blood pressure, and increased heart rate.
thirst, dry mucous membranes, and diarrhea.
confusion, lethargy, coma, and perhaps seizures.
cardiac dysrhythmias, paresthesias, and muscle weakness.
Question 3The greatest risk factor for bladder cancer is
smoking.
recurrent bladder infections.
low fluid intake.
family history of bladder cancer.
Question 4A compound, transverse fracture is best described as a bone that is
broken in two or more pieces.
cracked but not completely separated.
broken along the long axis.
broken and protruding through the skin.
Question 5Which characteristic is indicative of hemolytic anemia?
Increased total iron-binding capacity
Increased heart rate
Hypovolemia
Jaundice
Question 6The stage of spinal shock that follows spinal cord injury is characterized by
reflex urination and defecation.
autonomic dysreflexia.
absent spinal reflexes below the level of injury.
motor spasticity and hyperreflexia below the level of injury.
Question 7A patient admitted with bleeding related to esophageal varices could be expected to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of
glucose.
octreotide acetate.
anticoagulants.
proton pump inhibitors.
Question 8The complication which is not likely to result from a compound, transverse fracture of the tibia and fibula is
bone infection.
fat emboli.
air embolus.
compartment syndrome.
Question 9Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis is evidenced by
decreased carbon dioxide.
elevated carbon dioxide.
decreased bicarbonate ion concentration.
elevated bicarbonate ion concentration.
Question 10Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases
sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney.
potassium secretion in the distal tubule of the kidney.
water reabsorption in the collecting tubule of the kidney.
urinary output.
Question 11A person who is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome is also experiencing hypoalbuminemia. This happens because
hepatocyte failure decreases albumin synthesis.
albumin is excreted in the urine.
albumin leaks into the interstitial spaces.
malnutrition is part of nephrotic syndrome.
Question 12What laboratory finding is usually found in aplastic anemia?
Leukocytosis
Thrombocythemia
Neutrophilia
Pancytopenia
Question 13Systemic disorders include
adhesive capsulitis.
verrucae.
osteoarthritis.
rheumatoid arthritis.
Question 14A 3-year-old is diagnosed with starvation ketoacidosis. What signs and symptoms should you anticipate in your assessment?
Slow, shallow breathing, belligerence, hyperexcitability
Slow, shallow breathing, numbness and tingling around his mouth
Rapid, deep breathing, lethargy, abdominal pain
Rapid, deep breathing, tremors, elevated blood pressure
Question 15An increased urine bilirubin is associated with
an increased indirect serum bilirubin.
hemolytic reactions.
Gilbert syndrome.
hepatitis.
Question 16Pneumocystitis is a term that refers to a
fungal pneumonia secondary to HIV.
viral pneumonia found in transplant recipients.
non-infectious inflammation in the lung.
pneumonia secondary to bladder infection.
Question 17Renal insufficiency occurs when _____ of the nephrons are not functional.
25%
50%
75% to 90%
more than 90%
Question 18Which disorder is caused by inhalation of organic substances?
Diffuse interstitial lung disease
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Sarcoidosis
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Question 19The urinalysis finding most indicative of cystitis includes the presence of
WBCs and RBCs.
nitrites.
casts.
bacteria.
Question 20The finding of hypotension, rigid abdomen, and absent bowel sounds in a patient with pancreatitis
is an expected finding and requires no specific intervention.
indicates peritonitis with substantial risk for sepsis and shock.
requires immediate surgical intervention.
is an unusual finding in pancreatitis and indicates misdiagnosis.
Question 21An elderly patients blood pressure is measured at 160/98. How would the patients left ventricular function be affected by this level of blood pressure?
This is an expected blood pressure in the elderly and has little effect on left ventricular function.
Left ventricular workload is increased with high afterload.
High blood pressure enhances left ventricular perfusion during systole.
High-pressure workload leads to left ventricular atrophy.
Question 22The primary adaptive purpose of the substances produced in the alarm stage is
energy and repair.
invoke resting state.
produce exhaustion.
set a new baseline steady-state.
Question 23A clinical finding consistent with a hypoglycemic reaction is
acetone breath.
warm, dry skin.
tremors.
hyperventilation.
Question 24A patient with high blood pressure who is otherwise healthy is counseled to restrict sodium intake. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.
Question 25Cervical cancer can be detected in the early, curable stage by the ________ test.
Papanicolaou
human papillomavirus
gonorrhoeae
vaginal pH
Question 26Effects of hypernatremia on the central nervous system typically include
confusion.
excitation.
insomnia.
hallucinations.
Question 27The infection frequently associated with development of postinfectious acute glomerulonephritis is
pneumonia.
throat infection.
endocarditis.
urinary tract infection.
Question 28Of the statements below, the accurate statement regarding nutrition and cellular health is
the body can generally produce elements essential for nutritional balance.
obese individuals are generally nutritionally healthy.
deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.
a normal BMI indicates nutritional health.
Question 29A loud pansystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla is most likely a result of
aortic regurgitation.
aortic stenosis.
mitral regurgitation.
mitral stenosis.
Question 30Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space is called
an abscess.
pleurisy.
flail chest.
pleural effusion.
Question 31Which condition is associated with an elevated reticulocyte count?
Renal disease
Aplastic anemia
Hypertension
Hemolytic anemia
Question 32Individuals diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at risk for developing numerous complications of various organs because of
excessive production of connective tissue.
formation of osteophytes in tissues.
immune injury to basement membranes.
impaired tissue oxygen transport.
Question 33The most commonly recognized outcome of hypertension is pulmonary disease.
True
False
Question 34The pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis involves
immune cells accumulating in pannus and destroying articular cartilage.
free radicals attaching to the synovial membrane and tunneling into articular cartilage.
excessive wear and tear and microtrauma that damage articular cartilage.
cysts developing in subchondral bone and creating fissures in articular cartilage.
Question 35Dysfunction of which organ would lead to clotting factor deficiency?
Liver
Kidney
Spleen
Pancreas
Question 36Steroids may be used in the management of acute exacerbation of symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, because
viral damage can be inhibited.
demyelination is mediated by immune mechanisms.
steroids reverse the progression of the disease.
steroids inhibit synaptic degradation of neurotransmitters.
Question 37Obstructive disorders are associated with
low residual volumes.
low expiratory flow rates.
increased expiratory reserve volume.
decreased total lung capacity.
Question 38Which disorder is considered a primary immunodeficiency disease?
HIV/AIDS
Malnutrition immunodeficiency
Cancer immunodeficiency
Radiation immunodeficiency
Question 39A patient with renal disease is at risk for developing uremia as the nephrons progressively deteriorate, because
the basement membrane becomes increasingly permeable.
filtration exceeds secretory and reabsorptive capacity.
excessive solute and water are lost in the urine.
GFR declines.
Question 40Hypertension is closely linked to
obstructive sleep apnea.
urinary tract infection.
de Quervain syndrome.
spinal stenosis.
Question 41Myocarditis should be suspected in a patient who presents with
chest pain and ST elevation.
acute onset of left ventricular dysfunction.
murmur and abnormal valves on echocardiogram.
family history of cardiomyopathy.

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