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PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 3 Understanding Assignment
Question 1The most reliable indicator that a person is experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is
severe, crushing chest pain.
ST-segment elevation.
dysrhythmias.
pain radiating to the lower legs.
Question 2Hypertension is closely linked to
obstructive sleep apnea.
urinary tract infection.
de Quervain syndrome.
spinal stenosis.
Question 3Constrictive pericarditis is associated with
impaired cardiac filling.
cardiac hypertrophy.
increased cardiac preload.
elevated myocardial oxygen consumption.
Question 4A loud pansystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla is most likely a result of
aortic regurgitation.
aortic stenosis.
mitral regurgitation.
mitral stenosis.
Question 5Restriction of which electrolytes is recommended in the management of high blood pressure?
Calcium
Potassium
Sodium
Magnesium
Question 6While hospitalized, an elderly patient with a history of myocardial infarction was noted to have high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). What is the significance of this finding?
Increased LDL levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.
Measures to decrease LDL levels in the elderly would be unlikely to affect the progression of this disease.
Increased LDL levels are indicative of moderate alcohol intake, and patients should be advised to abstain.
Elevated LDL levels are an expected finding in the elderly and therefore are not particularly significant.

Question 7Aortic regurgitation is associated with
diastolic murmur.
elevated left ventricular/aortic systolic pressure gradient.
elevated systemic diastolic blood pressure.
shortened ventricular ejection phase.
Question 8A patient has a history of falls, syncope, dizziness, and blurred vision. The patients symptomology is most likely related to
hypertension.
hypotension.
deep vein thrombosis.
angina.
Question 9After being diagnosed with hypertension, a patient returns to the clinic 6 weeks later. The patient reports moderate adherence to the recommended lifestyle changes and has experienced a decreased from 165/96 to 148/90 mm Hg in blood pressure. What is the most appropriate intervention for this patient at this time?
Continue lifestyle modifications only.
Continue lifestyle modifications plus diuretic therapy.
Continue lifestyle modifications plus ACE inhibitor therapy.
Continue lifestyle modifications plus b-blocker therapy.
Question 10The most commonly recognized outcome of hypertension is pulmonary disease.
True
False
Question 11What compensatory sign would be expected during periods of physical exertion in a patient with limited ventricular stroke volume?
Hypotension
Bradycardia
Aortic regurgitation
Tachycardia
Question 12Hypertension with a specific, identifiable cause is known as _____ hypertension.
primary
orthostatic
secondary
malignant
Question 13What results when systemic blood pressure is increased?
Hypovolemia
Decreased cardiac output
Vasoconstriction
Decreased vascular resistance
Question 14Myocarditis should be suspected in a patient who presents with
chest pain and ST elevation.
acute onset of left ventricular dysfunction.
murmur and abnormal valves on echocardiogram.
family history of cardiomyopathy.
Question 15Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the
release of rennin.
conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
effect of aldosterone on the kidney.
Question 16Which serum biomarker(s) are indicative of irreversible damage to myocardial cells?
Elevated CK-MB, troponin I, and troponin T
Markedly decreased CK-MB and troponin I
Elevated LDL
Prolonged coagulation time
Question 17Lactated Ringer solution and normal saline are commonly used crystalloid solutions that contain electrolytes.
True
False
Question 18An erroneously low blood pressure measurement may be caused by
positioning the arm above the heart level.
using a cuff that is too small.
positioning the arm at heart level.
measuring blood pressure after exercise.

Question 19A patient is diagnosed with cardiogenic shock. The patient is hyperventilating and is therefore at risk for the respiratory complication of respiratory acidosis.
True
False
Question 20Patent ductus arteriosus is accurately described as a(n)
opening between the atria.
stricture of the aorta that impedes blood flow.
communication between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
cyanotic heart defect associated with right-to-left shunt.
Question 21A patient is exhibiting severe dyspnea and anxiety. The patient also has bubbly crackles in all lung fields with pink, frothy sputum. This patient is most likely experiencing
right-sided heart failure.
cardiomyopathy.
a medication reaction.
acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
Question 22In which stage of shock is a patient who has lost 1200 mL of blood, who has normal blood pressure when supine, but who experiences orthostatic hypotension upon standing?
Class I, Initial Stage
Class II, Compensated Stage
Class III, Progressive Stage
Class IV, Refractory Stage
Question 23A patient is diagnosed with heart failure with normal ejection fraction. This patient is most likely characterized by a(n)
elderly woman without a previous history of MI.
middle-aged man with a previous history of MI.
young female athlete with cardiomegaly.
young sedentary male with a high-stress job.
Question 24Patients with structural evidence of heart failure who exhibit no signs or symptoms are classified into which New York Heart Association heart failure class?
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Question 25Chronic elevation of myocardial wall tension results in atrophy.
True
False
Question 26Massive release of histamine with consequent vasodilation and hypotension occurs with what type of shock?
Cardiogenic
Hypovolemic
Anaphylactic
Neurogenic
Question 27Beta-blockers are advocated in the management of heart failure because they
increase cardiac output.
reduce cardiac output.
enhance sodium absorption.
reduce blood flow to the kidneys.
Question 28The common denominator in all forms of heart failure is
poor diastolic filling.
reduced cardiac output.
pulmonary edema.
tissue ischemia.
Question 29A patient who reports dizziness and who has absent P waves, wide QRS complexes, and a heart rate of 38 beats/minute on an ECG is most likely in which rhythm?
Third-degree heart block
Junctional tachycardia
Ventricular escape rhythm
Sinus bradycardia
Question 30The progressive stage of hypovolemic shock is characterized by
tachycardia.
hypertension.
lactic acidosis.
cardiac failure.
Question 31Hypertrophy of the right ventricle is a compensatory response to
aortic stenosis.
aortic regurgitation.
tricuspid stenosis.
pulmonary stenosis.
Question 32First-degree heart block is characterized by
prolonged PR interval.
absent P waves.
widened QRS complex.
variable PR interval.
Question 33Administration of a vasodilator to a patient in shock would be expected to
decrease vascular resistance.
increase contractility.
decrease left ventricular afterload.
increase tissue perfusion.
Question 34The majority of tachydysrhythmias are believed to occur because of
triggered activity.
enhanced automaticity.
defective gap junctions.
reentry mechanisms.
Question 35A patient with cold and edematous extremities, low cardiac output, and profound hypotension is likely to be experiencing a progressive stage of ________ shock.
cardiogenic
hypovolemic
obstructive
septic
Question 36A patient presenting with fever, hypotension, and lactic acidosis is most likely to be experiencing what type of shock?
Cardiogenic
Septic
Anaphylactic
Neurogenic
Question 37Second-degree heart block type I (Wenckebach) is characterized by
absent P waves.
lengthening PR intervals and dropped P wave.
constant PR interval and dropped QRS complexes.
no correlation between P waves and QRS complexes.
Question 38Tachycardia is an early sign of low cardiac output that occurs because of
tissue hypoxia.
anxiety.
baroreceptor activity.
acidosis.
Question 39dministration of which therapy is most appropriate for hypovolemic shock?
Crystalloids
Vasoconstrictor agents
Inotropic agents
5% dextrose in water
Question 40Lusitropic impairment refers to
poor contractile force.
impaired diastolic relaxation.
altered action potential conduction rate.
altered automaticity.

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