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PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 1 Understanding Assignment
Question 1 Malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin are known as
lymphoma.
sarcomas.
carcinomas.
adenomas.
Question 2 Metaplasia is
the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another.
the transformation of a cell type to malignancy.
an irreversible cellular adaptation.
the disorganization of cells into various sizes, shapes, and arrangements.
Question 3 The primary effect of aging on all body systems is
decreased functional reserve.
diseased function.
programmed senescence.
senility.
Question 4The cellular response indicative of injury because of faulty metabolism is
hydropic swelling.
lactate production.
metaplasia.
intracellular accumulations.
Question 5A patient with metastatic lung cancer wants to know her chances for survival. Which response is correct?
Lung cancer is always fatal.
Lung cancer has about a 15% survival rate.
Lung cancer is highly curable when diagnosed early.
Lung cancer death rate has decreased significantly, as with all other cancers.
Question 6After surgery to remove a lung tumor, your patient is scheduled for chemotherapy, which will
selectively kill tumor cells.
stimulate immune cells to fight the cancer.
have minimal side effects.
kill rapidly dividing cells.
Question 7The cellular component that is most susceptible to radiation injury is the
membrane.
DNA.
RNA.
ribosomes.
Cellular DNA is particularly susceptible to damage from radiation via breakage of the bonds holding the linear DNA together. Cell membranes, RNA, and ribosomes are not the most susceptible to radiation injury.
Question 8Carbon monoxide injures cells by
destruction of cellular membranes.
reducing oxygen level on hemoglobin.
promotion of free radicals.
crystallization of cellular organelles.
Question 9The most common tumor-suppressor gene defect identified in cancer cells is
Rb.
P53.
DCC.
APC.
Question 10Cancer grading is based on
tumor size.
local invasion.
cell differentiation.
metastasis.
Question 11Paraneoplastic syndromes in cancer involve excessive production of substances by multiple means. A common substance found in excessive amounts resulting from cancer paraneoplastic syndromes is
insulin.
tumor necrosis factor.
potassium.
calcium.
Question 12Your patient eats lots of fat, leads a stressful life, and has smoked about two packs a day for the last 40 years. Her chronic morning cough recently worsened, and she was diagnosed with a lung mass. The most likely contributing factor for development of lung cancer in this patient is
high-fat diet.
urban pollutants.
stressful lifestyle.
cigarette smoking.
Question 13In general, a cancer cell that is more tissue-specific differentiated is more likely to be aggressive.
True
False
Question 14The cellular change that is considered preneoplastic is
anaplasia.
dysplasia.
metaplasia.
hyperplasia.
Question 15After bronchoscopy and histologic examination of a suspected tumor, your patient is diagnosed with primary bronchial carcinoma. Thus, the tumor
is benign.
is malignant.
is secondary to cancer elsewhere in the body.
has spread.
Question 16Familial retinoblastoma involves the transmission of what from parent to offspring?
Mutant tumor-suppressor gene
Cancer-causing virus
Oncogene
Extra chromosome

Question 17Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces _____ necrosis.
coagulative
caseous
liquefactive
fat
Question 18Retroviruses are associated with human cancers, including
Burkitt lymphoma.
Hodgkins lymphoma.
pancreatic cancer.
hepatic cancer.
Question 19Breast cancer in women who have the breast cancer gene
occurs at an earlier age.
is more likely to be unilateral.
is more common than non-inherited breast cancer.
is more responsive to treatment.
Question 20The hypermetabolic state leading to cachexia in terminal cancer is thought to be because of
tumor necrosis factor.
angiogenesis.
loss of ATP production.
pain medications.
Question 21A patient with high blood pressure who is otherwise healthy is counseled to restrict sodium intake. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.
Question 22Allostasis is best defined as
steady-state.
a state of equilibrium, of balance within the organism.
the process by which the body heals following disease.
the overall process of adaptive change necessary to maintain survival and well-being.
Question 23A disease that is native to a particular region is called
epidemic.
endemic.
pandemic.
ethnographic.
Question 24The effects of excessive cortisol production include
immune suppression.
hypoglycemia.
anorexia.
inflammatory reactions.
Question 25In general, with aging, organ size and function
increase.
decrease.
remain the same.
are unknown.
Question 26All the following stress-induced hormones increase blood glucose except
aldosterone.
cortisol.
norepinephrine.
epinephrine.
Question 27Persistence of the alarm stage will ultimately result in
stress reduction.
permanent damage and death.
movement into the resistance stage.
exhaustion of the sympathetic nervous system.
Question 28A patient has been exposed to meningococcal meningitis, but is not yet demonstrating signs of this disease. This stage of illness is called the _____ stage.
prodromal
latent
sequela
convalescence
Question 29Somatic death refers to death
of a body organ.
of the entire organism.
of nerve cells.
secondary to brain damage.
Question 30An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.
Question 31Many of the responses to stress are attributed to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and are mediated by
norepinephrine.
cortisol.
glucagon.
ACTH.
Question 32C.Q. was recently exposed to group A hemolytic Streptococcus and subsequently developed a pharyngeal infection. His clinic examination reveals an oral temperature of 102.3F, skin rash, dysphagia, and reddened throat mucosa with multiple pustules. He complains of sore throat, malaise, and joint stiffness. A throat culture is positive for Streptococcus, and antibiotics have been prescribed. The etiology of C.Q.s disease is
a sore throat.
streptococcal infection.
genetic susceptibility.
pharyngitis.
Question 33A 17-year-old college-bound student receives a vaccine against an organism that causes meningitis. This is an example of
primary prevention.
secondary prevention.
tertiary prevention.
disease treatment.
Question 34The effect of stress on the immune system
is unknown.
has been demonstrated to be non-existent in studies.
most often involves enhancement of the immune system.
may involve enhancement or impairment the immune system.
Question 35All these cellular responses are potentially reversible except
necrosis.
metaplasia.
atrophy.
hyperplasia.
Question 36An increase in organ size and function caused by increased workload is termed
atrophy.
hypertrophy.
metaplasia
inflammation.
Question 37When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be idiopathic
True
False
Question 38Reperfusion injury to cells
results in very little cellular damage.
results from calcium deficiency in cells.
occurs following nutritional injury.
involves formation of free radicals.
Question 39Extreme cold injures cells by all the following except
ischemic injury from vasoconstriction.
peripheral nerve damage from rebound vasodilation.
decreased blood viscosity.
crystallization of cellular components.
Question 40Selyes three phases of the stress response include all the following except
allostasis.
resistance.
alarm.
exhaustion.

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