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PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 1 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 1 on Toni, break down the following parts of the framework of Pathophysiology:
Etiology
Risk factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical manifestations (Signs/Symptoms)
Treatment/Management
Please correlate your responses to Tonis case. Also, note that content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapters 1,2,4, and 7.
Requirements
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within 2 days after initial class
Minimum 2 peer responses due before the next class
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 2 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 2 on Samantha, answer the following prompts:
Prompt 1: Explain in detail the pathogenesis of a DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) and how it can lead to a PE (Pulmonary Embolism)
Prompt 2: Research and list all the possible treatment options for a DVT
Please correlate your responses to Samanthas case. Also, note that content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapters 14 and 15.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within two days after initial class
Minimum 2 Peer responses due before the next class.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 3 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 3 on Henry, compare and contrast the difference between, right, left, and biventricular heart failure. Explain why Henry had right-sided heart failure.
Please correlate your responses to Henrys case. Also, note that content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapters 16, 18, and 19.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within 2 days after initial class
Minimum 2 peer responses due before the next class
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 4 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 4 on Mr. Jones, answer two of the following prompts: Please identify each prompt you answer by number and restate the question in bold letters.
Prompt 1: How many patients are suffering from COPD in the United States? Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? (Be sure to cite the data.)
Prompt 2: What two separate diseases are the main COPD diseases? Give background on each disease.
Prompt 3: How does COPD correlate with left ventricular pressure and primary heart failure?
Prompt 4: What are the three types of bronchodilators, and how do they function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD? What are other possible treatments for COPD?
Prompt 5: Through which mechanism does bronchiolitis cause destruction of alveoli? Is emphysema genetic? Can environmental factors increase the risk of emphysema? Why or why not?
Prompt 6: Is lung transplantation a solution for emphysema? Can new technology be useful in the treatment of emphysema? Why or why not?
Please correlate your responses to Mr. Joness case. Content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapter 22.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within two days after initial class
Minimum 2 Peer responses due before the next class.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 6 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 6 on Mr. Fallbrook, answer two of the following prompts: Please identify each prompt you answer by number and restate the question in bold letters.
Prompt 1: Explain in detail the pathogenesis on how Mr. Fallbrooks gastroenteritis leads to sepsis and then ARF.
Prompt 2: Research the medication Enalapril. Explain its uses, dosage, and side effects.
Prompt 3:Explain the different types of Acute Renal Failure and which type Mr. Fallbrook falls under.
Prompt 4: Explain the different types of dialysis and how they are used.
Please correlate your responses to Mr. Fallbrooks case. Content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapter 16, 20, 28, and 36.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within two days after initial class
Minimum 2 Peer responses due before the next class.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 7 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 7 on Ms. Fernandez, answer two of the following prompts: Please identify each prompt you answer by number and restate the question in bold letters.
Prompt 1: Explain in detail the pathogenesis of DM Type 1 & 2 and DKA.
Prompt 2: Explain how Ms. Fernandezs past medical history correlates to her current condition.
Prompt 3:Describe treatments that would be used for DM and DKA.
Please correlate your responses to Ms. Fernandezs case. Content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapter 36 and 41.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within two days after initial class
Minimum 2 Peer responses due before the next class.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 8 Discussion
Using the video from Episode 8 on Rowena, answer two of the following prompts: Please identify each prompt you answer by number and restate the question in bold letters.
Prompt 1: Explain in detail the different types of dementia.
Prompt 2: Explain in detail the difference between ischemic vs. hemorrhagic stroke.
Prompt 3:Explain the use of tPAs (Tissue Plasminogen Activator)
Prompt 4: Describe additional treatments and management that could be used in Rowenas case.
Please correlate your responses to Rowenas case. Content in this case scenario incorporates topics from Chapter 44 and 45.
Requirements:
1-2 references to support your responses.
1-2 full paragraph responses
Initial post due within two days after initial class
Minimum 2 Peer responses due before the next class.

PATH370 Pathophysiology
Signature Assignment-Case Study
In order to write a case study paper, you must carefully address a number of sections in a specific order with specific information contained in each. The guideline below outlines each of those sections.
Section Information to Include
Introduction (patient and problem) Explain who the patient is (Age, gender, etc.)
Explain what the problem is (What was he/she diagnosed with, or what happened?)
Introduce your main argument (What should you as a nurse focus on or do?)
Pathophysiology Explain the disease (What are the symptoms? What causes it?)
History Explain what health problems the patient has (Has she/he been diagnosed with other diseases?)
Detail any and all previous treatments (Has she/he had any prior surgeries or is he/she on medication?)
Nursing Physical Assessment List all the patients health stats in sentences with specific numbers/levels (Blood pressure, bowel sounds, ambulation, etc.)
Related Treatments Explain what treatments the patient is receiving because of his/her disease
Nursing Diagnosis & Patient Goal Explain what your nursing diagnosis is (What is the main problem for this patient? What need to be addressed?)
Explain what your goal is for helping the patient recover (What do you want to change for the patient?)
Nursing Interventions Explain how you will accomplish your nursing goals, and support this with citations (Reference the literature)
Evaluation Explain how effective the nursing intervention was (What happened after your nursing intervention? Did the patient get better?)
Recommendations Explain what the patient or nurse should do in the future to continue recovery/improvement
Your paper should be 3-4 pages in length and will be graded on how well you complete each of the above sections. You will also be graded on your use of APA style and on your application of nursing journals into the treatments and interventions. For integrating nursing journals, remember the following:
Make sure to integrate citations into all of your paper
Support all claims of what the disease is, why it occurs and how to treat it with references to the literature on this disease
Always use citations for information that you learned from a book or article; if you do not cite it, you are telling your reader that YOU discovered that information (how to treat the disease, etc.)
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Evidence-Based Medicine: Research Project and Presentation
In this project, you will complete a clinical case study analysis, research review, and oral presentation about the pathophysiology of your chosen topic. In this project, you will work in groups of two to four people. You will present as a group and receive a participation/collaboration grade. You will also be graded based on your individual contribution to the content.
Your presentations should follow a case study SBAR format (situation, background, assessment, and recommendations). Include four (4) different medical-based evidence and/or research recommendations. You must include at least five (5) scholarly sources in your overall presentation.
Your group presentation should include:
Introduction to the case or situation
Background detail
Clinical assessment
Recommendations
Application to future practice
At least five (5) scholarly references supporting your ideas
The use of audiovisual aids such as PowerPoint, DVD clips, sound effects, posters, radiology films, medical reports, etc.
Opportunities for engagement with the audience such as a question and answer session
Submit your PowerPoint and any handouts to the assignment dropbox before your presentation. You may submit just your portion of the overall presentation OR submit the entire presentation; be clear which section you are responsible for.
Review the rubric for grading criteria.
*HIPPA Compliance: If you are using an actual person for your case study, please see your instructor to obtain a HIPPA release form so that we are in compliance with the Health Information Patient Privacy Act.
** At some campuses, there will be an incorporation of the Team Teach collaboration model where nursing faculty are invited to come and observe the presentations and give feedback from a clinical perspective. Your instructor will inform you if this is a requirement.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 2 In Class Assignment
Hodgkin disease
A.S. was recently diagnosed with Hodgkin disease and scheduled for a staging procedure. His previous axillary lymph node biopsy result was positive for Reed-Sternberg cells. The surgeon charted results of the staging procedure as stage I.
What is the purpose of the staging procedure for A.S.?
How does Hodgkin lymphoma spread in the body, and what does stage Isignify for A.S.?
What is the difference between Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
What is the prognosis and predicted therapy for A.S. now that he has been diagnosed with stage I Hodgkin disease?
What side effects might A.S. expect from this therapy?
Case 2 E.O. is an 8-year-old girl with a history of asthma and allergy to bee stings. She has been brought to the clinic complaining of a throat infection. Her health care provider prescribes a course of penicillin to manage her current infection and cautions her parents to watch her closely for a reaction.
Discussion Questions
What type of reaction is the health care provider concerned about and why?
Explain the role of IgE and mast cells in type I hypersensitivity reactions. Why might E.O. react adversely to the antibiotic with the first use?
What would you tell E.O.s parents to look for when they are assessing for a reaction?
What would you suggest the parents do if a reaction does occur?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 3 In Class Assignment
What risk factors for primary hypertension are evident from K.H.s history and physical data?
What is the rationale for treating K.H. with an ACE inhibitor? What is the mechanism of action? What part of the blood pressure formula do they affect?
K.H.s hypertension is not adequately controlled. What other intervention might be considered?
What tips can you give K.H.s wife to improve the accuracy of her blood pressure measurement technique?
Case 2
Which type of heart failure (left or right sided) is usually associated with dyspnea? What other clinical findings are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure
What compensatory mechanisms are likely to be operative in A.O. to enhance cardiac output?
What is the most likely cause of A.O.s pedal edema?
What is the cause of A.O.s exertional chest pain? What laboratory tests would be useful to confirm this diagnosis?
What is the rationale for the use of each of A.O.s medications in managing her heart disease?
Case 3
Based on his case history and responsiveness to fluid therapy, what type of shock was C.C. experiencing?
What other clinical findings would be helpful in confirming the type of shock? Why?
Because of his many open wounds and invasive lines, C.C. is at risk for sepsis and septic shock. What clinical findings would suggest that this complication has developed?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 4 In Class Assignment
Case 1What clinical findings are likely in R.S. as a consequence of his COPD? How would these differ from those of emphysematous COPD?
Interpret R.S.s laboratory results. How would his acid-base disorder be classified? What is the most likely cause of his polycythemia?
What is the rationale for treating R.S. with theophylline and a 2 agonist?
What effects would his respiratory disease have on his cardiovascular function?
Considering both his COPD and pneumonia, in what position would R.S. have the worst ventilation-perfusion matching?
Case 2 What is the most likely cause of her respiratory distress? Why?
What diagnostic findings would help confirm this diagnosis?
What is the pathogenesis of hypoxemia in this disorder?
How will R.S.s respiratory disorder likely be treated?
Case 3 What is the underlying mechanism of R.J.s asthma? What are the three airway responses that occur during an asthma episode?
In addition to bronchodilator therapy with intermittent albuterol, what other pharmacotherapy is important in the management of asthma?
What is the significance of a PEFR at 60% predicted? If spirometry were performed at this time, what would be the likely findings?
How to monitor response to therapy?
In addition to reviewing appropriate drug therapy, what other preventive and treatment measures should be included in R.J.s discharge teaching?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 5 In Class Assignment
Case 1How would a pneumococcal infection lead to glomerulonephritis? How can glomerulonephritis result in nephrosis?
Use J.H.s laboratory values to determine if he is still experiencing nephrosis or his condition is progressing to renal failure.
What additional physical or laboratory findings would help determine J.H.’s degree of renal impairment?
How will J.H.’s therapy change if his condition has progressed from nephrosis to uremia?
Case 2 What type of renal failure is P.W. likely developing? What data support this conclusion?
Without adequate therapy, what may develop? Why? What is the best therapy for preventing this from occurring?
In addition to urine output, what laboratory data should be monitored to assess changes in P.W.s renal function?
If P.W.’s renal function does not return to normal but continues to be diminished, what are the subsequent stages of his renal disorder and what clinical problems do they present?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 6 In Class Assignment
Case study 1 What risk factors does L.B. have that predispose her to development of gallstones?
Why are fatty foods often associated with an exacerbation of symptoms?
What is the relationship between gallstones and cholecystitis?
What options are there for the surgical removal of the gallbladder? What other options are available for the treatment of cholecystitis?
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is selected. Will L.B. continue to secrete bile after her surgery? How?
Case study 2 What are the common manifestations of alcoholic cirrhosis? Which of these are secondary to hepatocellular failure? Which are secondary to portal hypertension?
Why is F.C. at particular risk for GI bleeding?
What is the probable cause of F.C.s progressive mental deterioration? How might his mental deterioration be medically managed?
What problems might be precipitated by F.C.s abrupt cessation of alcohol intake while hospitalized?
Case study 3 What is the likely cause of the dysphagia?
What advice should he be given regarding his OTC medication at this time?
What are the usual signs and symptoms of GERD? How will it be managed?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 7 In Class Assignment
1. What is the most likely cause of M.G.’s signs and symptoms? What is the origin and pathogenesis? What other laboratory findings would be consistent with this etiology?
2. What are common complications of this disorder, and how would one assess for their occurrence?
3. What is the usual treatment for this disorder?
Case 2 Discussion Questions

    What questions could be asked of J. S.’s family to help determine the cause of her stroke as thrombotic, embolic, or hemorrhagic (i.e., questions to assess risk factors for each type of stroke)?
    Based on the scenario described above, which brain hemisphere (left or right) suffered the ischemic damage? What other manifestations of this stroke location would likely be apparent?
    What medical therapies might be used to manage this current stroke and/or to prevent another one?
    What information might be appropriate to give J.S.’s family about the expected recovery process after stroke?

Case 3 Discussion Questions
1. What types of motor difficulties would F.P. be expected to exhibit related to his Parkinson disease?
2. What is the rationale for managing Parkinson disease with a dopamine precursor?
3. What safety and activities-of-daily-living problems might F.P. have encountered while hospitalized?
4. If F.P. experiences seizure activity while in the hospital, what should be assessed during the seizure episode? How would his seizure be managed?
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 1 Understanding Assignment
Question 1 Malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin are known as
lymphoma.
sarcomas.
carcinomas.
adenomas.
Question 2 Metaplasia is
the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another.
the transformation of a cell type to malignancy.
an irreversible cellular adaptation.
the disorganization of cells into various sizes, shapes, and arrangements.
Question 3 The primary effect of aging on all body systems is
decreased functional reserve.
diseased function.
programmed senescence.
senility.
Question 4The cellular response indicative of injury because of faulty metabolism is
hydropic swelling.
lactate production.
metaplasia.
intracellular accumulations.
Question 5A patient with metastatic lung cancer wants to know her chances for survival. Which response is correct?
Lung cancer is always fatal.
Lung cancer has about a 15% survival rate.
Lung cancer is highly curable when diagnosed early.
Lung cancer death rate has decreased significantly, as with all other cancers.
Question 6After surgery to remove a lung tumor, your patient is scheduled for chemotherapy, which will
selectively kill tumor cells.
stimulate immune cells to fight the cancer.
have minimal side effects.
kill rapidly dividing cells.
Question 7The cellular component that is most susceptible to radiation injury is the
membrane.
DNA.
RNA.
ribosomes.
Cellular DNA is particularly susceptible to damage from radiation via breakage of the bonds holding the linear DNA together. Cell membranes, RNA, and ribosomes are not the most susceptible to radiation injury.
Question 8Carbon monoxide injures cells by
destruction of cellular membranes.
reducing oxygen level on hemoglobin.
promotion of free radicals.
crystallization of cellular organelles.
Question 9The most common tumor-suppressor gene defect identified in cancer cells is
Rb.
P53.
DCC.
APC.
Question 10Cancer grading is based on
tumor size.
local invasion.
cell differentiation.
metastasis.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 2 Understanding Assignment
Question 1A primary effector cell of the type I hypersensitivity response is
monocytes.
mast cells.
neutrophils.
cytotoxic cells.
Question 2An important mediator of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is
complement.
antigenantibody immune complexes.
T cells.
histamine.
Question 3Peripheral edema is a result of
arterial insufficiency.
venous thrombosis.
hypertension.
atherosclerosis.
Question 4The Philadelphia chromosome is a balanced chromosome translocation that forms a new gene called
bcr-abl.
Rb.
p53.
ARA-c.
Question 5Which form of leukemia demonstrates the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome?
ALL (acute lymphoid leukemia)
CLL (chronic lymphoid leukemia)
AML (acute myeloid leukemia)
CML (chronic myeloid leukemia)
Question 6Risk factors for atherosclerosis include
female gender.
hyperlipidemia.
high-protein diet.
low-fiber diet.
Question 7The hypersensitivity reaction that does not involve antibody production is type
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Question 8Which clinical finding is indicative of compartment syndrome?
Peripheral edema
Absent peripheral pulses
Redness and swelling
Atrophy of distal tissues
Question 9A child with a history of recent strep throat infection develops glomerulonephritis. This is most likely a type _____ hypersensitivity reaction.
I
II
III
IV
Question 10What is the effect on resistance if the radius of a vessel is halved?
Resistance doubles.
Resistance decreases by a factor of 16.
Resistance decreases by half.
Resistance increases by a factor of 16.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 3 Understanding Assignment
Question 1The most reliable indicator that a person is experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is
severe, crushing chest pain.
ST-segment elevation.
dysrhythmias.
pain radiating to the lower legs.
Question 2Hypertension is closely linked to
obstructive sleep apnea.
urinary tract infection.
de Quervain syndrome.
spinal stenosis.
Question 3Constrictive pericarditis is associated with
impaired cardiac filling.
cardiac hypertrophy.
increased cardiac preload.
elevated myocardial oxygen consumption.
Question 4A loud pansystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla is most likely a result of
aortic regurgitation.
aortic stenosis.
mitral regurgitation.
mitral stenosis.
Question 5Restriction of which electrolytes is recommended in the management of high blood pressure?
Calcium
Potassium
Sodium
Magnesium
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 4 Understanding Assignment
Question 1After evaluation, a childs asthma is characterized as extrinsic. This means that the asthma is
of unknown pathogenesis.
associated with specific allergic triggers.
associated with respiratory infections.
induced by psychological factors (stress).
Question 2Croup is characterized by
a productive cough.
a barking cough.
an inability to cough.
drooling, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing.
Question 3Empyema is defined as an
exudative bronchitis.
infection in the pleural space.
infection localized in the lung.
infection in the blood.
Question 4Obstructive sleep apnea would most likely be found in a patient diagnosed with
myasthenia gravis.
poliomyelitis.
Pickwickian syndrome.
pneumonia.
Question 5A major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is
contaminated water.
immunosuppression.
being a male.
overuse of antibiotics.
Question 6Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus control the release of
angiotensin.
atrial natriuretic peptide.
aldosterone.
vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH).
Question 7Emphysema results from destruction of alveolar walls and capillaries, which is because of
release of proteolytic enzymes from immune cells.
air trapping with resultant excessive alveolar pressure.
excessive a1-antitrypsin.
autoantibodies against pulmonary basement membrane.
Question 8An increase in the resting membrane potential (hyperpolarized) is associated with
hypokalemia.
hyperkalemia.
hypocalcemia.
hypercalcemia.
Question 9To best prevent emphysema, a patient is instructed to stop smoking since cigarette smoke
impairs a1-antitrypsin, allowing elastase to predominate.
paralyzes the cilia, causing impaired mucociliary clearance.
predisposes to respiratory infections.
introduces carcinogens into the lungs.
Question 10Airway obstruction in chronic bronchitis is because of
thick mucus, fibrosis, and smooth muscle hypertrophy.
loss of alveolar elastin.
pulmonary edema.
hyperplasia and deformation of bronchial cartilage
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 5 Understanding Assignment
Question 1Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is caused by
endometrial inflammation.
reproductive tract malignancies.
endometrial fibroid tumors.
absent or diminished levels of progesterone.
Question 2Which group is at the highest risk for urinary tract infection?
Infants and children
Sexually active women
Adult males
Patients taking diuretics
Question 3The patient reports persistent pelvic pain and urinary frequency and urgency. She says the pain improves when she empties her bladder. She does not have a fever and her repeated urinalyses over the past months have been normal, although she has a history of frequent bladder infections. She also has a history of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism. Based on her history and complaints, her symptoms are characteristic of
neuroses.
ureteral stone.
neurogenic bladder.
interstitial cystitis.
Question 4The greatest risk factor for bladder cancer is
smoking.
recurrent bladder infections.
low fluid intake.
family history of bladder cancer.
Question 5Infection can lead to bladder stone formation.
True
False
Question 6Cryptorchidism is
associated with an increased incidence of testicular cancer.
an extremely uncommon disorder.
rarely treated.
a consequence of gonorrhea.
Question 7What reproductive tract disorder is most likely to be associated with urinary stress incontinence?
Rectocele
Menopause
Cystocele
Cervicitis
Question 8Treatment of a uterine prolapse may involve the insertion of a(n) ________ to hold the uterus in place.
catheter.
IUD.
pessary.
endopelvic mesh implant.
Question 9The urinalysis finding most indicative of cystitis includes the presence of
WBCs and RBCs.
nitrites.
casts.
bacteria.
Question 10A patient, age 3, has vesicoureteral reflux. Why does that make him have so many bladder infections? asks his mother. The nurses best response is
When he urinates, the urine makes a fluid trail to the bladder, and if he does not clean himself well, bacteria will enter and make a bladder infection.
When he urinates, urine runs back toward his kidneys and then into the bladder again, making it easy for bacteria to grow if they reach the bladder.
When he urinates, urine leaks into his bowel and bacteria from the bowel leak into the bladder, where they grow and make a bladder infection.
When he urinates, urine stays in his bladder and the normal bacteria that live in the bladder have a chance to grow and cause a bladder infection.
PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 6 Understanding Assignment
Question 1It is true that biliary cancer
is most often cured by surgery.
respond well to chemotherapy.
are identifiable and treatable when diagnosed early.
tend to be asymptomatic and progress insidiously.
Question 2The most common cause of mechanical bowel obstruction is
volvulus.
intussusception.
adhesions.
fecal impaction.
Question 3Chronic pancreatitis may lead to
diabetes mellitus.
Crohn disease.
gallstones.
celiac sprue.
Question 4An urgent surgical consult is indicated for the patient with acute abdominal pain and
vomiting.
CVA tenderness.
absent bowel sounds.
borborygmi.
Question 5Normal bile is composed of
water, electrolytes, and organic solutes.
proteins.
bile acids.
phospholipids.
Question 6Untreated acute cholecystitis may lead to ________ of the gallbladder wall.
gangrene
infection
distention
inflammation
Question 7Jaundice is a common manifestation of
malabsorption syndromes.
anemia.
liver disease.
cholecystitis.
Question 8Constipation in an elderly patient can be best treated by
maintaining a low-fiber diet.
maintaining the current level of activity.
fecal disimpaction.
increasing fiber in the diet.
Question 9A patient admitted with bleeding related to esophageal varices could be expected to receive a

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