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Literature Appraisal
(25 points)

Directions: Select a research publication (not an evidence-based practice guideline) from the literature search to critically appraise. Complete the following items on the word document (.docx) provided in the module (download the document, complete it, then upload into the assignment area). Or, copy and paste the assignment (below) into your own word document (.docx), then upload it into the assignment area. (adapted from Polit & Beck, 2017, p. 100). DO NOT ALTER THIS DOCUMENT (a 5-point deduction will occur).

Name (-1 point if missing)


Academic Program & Population of Focus (-1 point if missing)


Population of Focus; Women with infertility receiving fertility treatment in Ghana.


APA Citation (3 points)

Asare, S. (2020). Workplace conflicts in district assemblies in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Coast).

Purpose of the Study (1 point)

To assess the incidence of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) among infertile women in Takoradi, Ghana, and explore their effect on self-esteem.

Type of Study

(1 point)



Mixed Methods

Meta Analysis

Systematic Review


Any Specifics?




Other: a correlational study

Setting (1 point)

Outpatient Clinical Setting; The study area consisted of three hospitals in Secondi, Accra, and Secondi-Takoradi Metropolis that offer physical and psychological care, with the hospitals in Accra and Secondi-Takoradi specializing in gynecological healthcare.

Intervention (1 point)


Variables (1 point)

Independent Variables: Anxiety, Depression, and Stress

Dependent Variables: Depression and self-esteem

Controlled Variables: Duration of marriage



(1 point) (If none, state none)

The Conceptual framework represents the relationship between the psychological state of the infertile woman and her self-esteem when the duration of marriage is controlled.

Design (1 point)


Randomized Control Trial

Factorial Design







Sample (1 point)

Population: 124 women were receiving outpatient fertility treatments.

Number in Sample: 48 women clinically diagnosed with infertility

Sampling Method: Purposive and stratified proportionate sampling

Generalizable? Yes No

Data Sources

(1 point)






Outcome Measures

(1 point)

(what data was collected?)

Data Collected; demographic data; age, sex, educational background, marital status

Psychological Stress Scores; Beck Depression Inventory (depression), Beck Anxiety Inventory (anxiety), Perceived Stress Scale scores (stress), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale scores (self-esteem)

Statistical Analysis

(1 point)

Bivariate (e.g., t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s r):

Multivariate (e.g., multiple regression, logistic regression):


Effect size (if provided) and/or p values (if provided) (1 point)

p-values used for hypothesis analysis. E.g.,

Hypothesis 5: Rejecting null, p<0.01, there is no significant relationship between psychological distress and self-esteem


(2 point)

-A positive correlation between anxiety and depression in women with infertility

-Anxiety significantly predicted depression in infertile women but not stress.

-There is a significant relationship between depression and self-esteem in infertile women.

-Depression significantly predicted low self-esteem in women with infertility but not anxiety and stress.

-No significant relationship between psychological distress and self-esteem.

Results Valid or Reliable? (2 point) (Explain)

Results are valid because they tested what was meant to be tested, i.e., the hypotheses, to determine if there were relationships between the different variables.

Results were reliable because the results were consistent across the same responses compared to the pretest results.

Conclusions (2 points)

Most study participants exhibited severe depression symptoms, normal anxiety, and moderate stress levels.

Strengths (2 points)

The study’s findings showed the magnitude of depression in women with infertility, highlighting a gap in treatment with the lack of psychological services in fertility treatment facilities.

From this study, the author recommended the addition of psychological care practices in infertility treatment.

Limitations (2 points)

Lacked external validity; results could not be generalized to the larger population because the sample chosen did not reflect the larger population.

Impossible to conclusively determine if psychological distress was from infertility issues or other stressors.


Asare, S. (2020). Workplace conflicts in district assemblies in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Coast).

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