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Benchmark – Ethical Behavior of Business Students at Bo Diddley Tech
During the global recession of 2008 and 2009, there were many accusations of unethical behavior by Wall Street executives, financial managers, and other corporate officers. At that time, an article appeared that suggested that part of the reason for such unethical business behavior may have stemmed from the fact that cheating had become more prevalent among business students, according to a February 10, 2009, article in the Chronicle of Higher Education. The article reported that 56% of business students admitted to cheating at some time during their academic career as compared to 47% of nonbusiness students.
Cheating has been a concern of the dean of the College of Business (COB) at Bo Diddley Tech (BDT) for several years. Some faculty members believe that cheating is more widespread at BDT than at other universities, whereas other faculty members think that cheating is not a major problem in the College of Business. To begin to address these issues, the dean of COB commissioned a study to assess the current ethical behavior of business students at BDT. As a former college athlete herself, the dean believed that the spirit of fair play students developed as part of participating in athletics would make them less likely to cheat.
As part of this study, an anonymous exit survey was administered to a sample of 1,440 students from this year’s graduating class, half of whom were business students and half of whom were not. The survey asked various questions, including the student’s college (business or nonbusiness) and if the student was an athlete or a nonathlete. Responses of the various questions were fed into a computer algorithm (advance data analytics) that made a quantitative determination as to whether the student should be considered a “cheater” or not. The results are in the attached Excel spreadsheet, “Overview – Benchmark – Ethical Behavior of Business Students at Bo Diddley Tech.” Utilize the data set in the Excel spreadsheet and select a randomized 100-unit sample from the original 1,440 exit surveys.
You will use the DCOVAS framework. Reference readings in The Statistician In You: Simple Everyday Life-Hacks (TSIY).
The intent of this assignment is to organize your data using a pivot table, get a graphical understanding of the data through a bar chart, then do hypothesis testing comparing Bo Diddley Tech results versus the national average.
·         Define the problem.
·         Collect data from the appropriate source(s).
·         Organize data using tables.
·         Visualize data using a chart or graph.
·         Analyze data using a tool and/or calculation(s).
·         Solution: Provide a conclusion and solution.
The intent of this assignment is to organize your data using a pivot table, get a graphical understanding of the data through a bar chart, then do hypothesis testing comparing Bo Diddley Tech results versus the national average.
***Note: First, sort the data from smallest to largest to change the order of the dataset.***
All of your analysis should be done in the “Student_BM” tab of this spreadsheet and submitted as part of the assignmemt. The locations where the pivot table, bar chart, and relevant information should be placed in the Student_BM tab are indicated by RED instructions. Copy the first 100 data points including the labels of Column D, E, and F. Paste data in Student_BM Worksheet
Column G is a random number field and will keep changing.
Once completed, the “Student_BM” tab will serve as the basis for writing your management report. It is expected that any conclusions you draw in the management report will be consistent with the data and analyses contained in the spreadsheet.
Instructions for Data Analysis Component:
1.       Make a pivot table with “Business Student” (Rows), “Athlete” (Rows), “Cheated” (Columns), and “Cheated” (Summed Value).
2.       Create a bar chart showing cheating by athletes and business students.
3.       Determine whether there is a statistical difference between nonathlete BDT business students and the national average for business students as reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education (test for a proportion).
4.       Determine whether there is a statistical significance to business athlete students at BDT cheating less than the national average for business students as reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education (test for a proportion).
5.       Determine whether there is a statistical difference between BDT business students and the national average for business students as reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education. (test for a proportion).
6.       Determine whether there is a statistical difference between BDT nonbusiness students and the national average for nonbusiness students as reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education (test for a proportion).
7.       Determine whether there is a statistical difference between BDT business student-athletes and nonathletes (test for two sample proportions).
8.       Determine whether there is a statistical relationship among the four groups of business athlete students, nonbusiness athlete students, business nonathlete students, and nonbusiness nonathlete students at BDT (chi-square test of independence).
Instructions for Data Interpretation Component:
1.       Introduction (define): In your own words, explain why you are providing this report and the problem(s) you are trying to solve.
2.       Collect: Describe the data set you used.
3.       Organize: Describe your pivot table.
4.       Visualize: Include and describe your bar chart and initial perceptions of outcomes.
5.       Analyze: Provide a summary of your conclusions based on the four population proportion tests, a two-sample proportion test, and test for independence (refer to Chapter 5.2 in TSIY). Begin with the statement of Ho and Ha and whether it is an upper-, lower-, or 2-tailed test. Use the model results and decide whether to reject Ho using the critical values approach, p-value approach, and confidence interval estimation approach to hypothesis testing. Create a summary table of each the six tests.
6.       Ethical Summary: The dean has expressed a concern related to the amount of cheating currently taking place at BDT and has strongly suggested that you “tweak” the statistical data such that they favor the image of the university. Discuss the potential use of unethical manipulation of statistical data to provide a biased outcome as well as the ethical counter proposal you would offer the dean in this scenario.
7.       Conclusion: What advice would you give to the dean based upon your analysis of the data? Include your “SummaryResults” table.
8.       Reference page: Include at least three references to support the “Ethical Summary” section of your managerial report.
Review assigment directions for more details.


College Athlete Cheated recordShuffler <– First, Sort data from Smallest to Largest
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7112753478
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4305740196
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5800199649
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.712502204
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5059986034
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7923525191
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6923199269
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4725094357
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5616470978
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1051796133
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0170799671
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4482677838
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6200706441
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.389997952
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3352558613
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4327927019
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4950502885
Bus Ath No 0.6441312155
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.894192155
Bus Ath No 0.6284949426
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8995951335
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2718817133
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9716950301
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4799357825
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0340225961
Bus Ath Yes 0.5793524816
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0939798091
Bus Ath No 0.5459055273
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1278275727
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8659585878
Bus Non_Ath No 0.8712285358
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2851895213
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2885514181
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0494438276
Bus Non_Ath No 0.304863446
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6694787003
Bus Ath Yes 0.9719570143
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2978503286
Bus Ath Yes 0.459403537
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1832227513
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.517817931
Bus Ath Yes 0.6427111896
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0342898795
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5844241334
Bus Ath Yes 0.9193847056
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3671714656
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6218549946
Bus Ath No 0.9047011714
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2554249577
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3213803943
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6328279586
Bus Ath No 0.0686367731
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0461094771
Bus Ath Yes 0.8356373944
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.7036883744
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7230756981
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2525092725
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1995998653
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4729557466
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7902564818
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6900972415
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4833916627
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.7887382447
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3737391405
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5683911174
Bus Ath No 0.1447417078
Bus Ath No 0.9728584394
Bus Ath Yes 0.6293843829
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2247329092
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.65565279
Bus Ath Yes 0.6058694279
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7404994681
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1330531741
Bus Non_Ath No 0.096142285
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1138069037
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7394735392
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3700980448
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6596608394
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6015988422
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1413221352
Bus Ath Yes 0.3499420383
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.8453669283
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5721587785
Bus Ath No 0.9328269202
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3367030047
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3384756046
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5540634029
Bus Ath No 0.0246132519
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.8408377607
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.4255351855
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4402312768
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.114351386
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.17741275
Bus Non_Ath No 0.3948321689
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6959653401
Bus Ath Yes 0.734584607
Bus Ath No 0.2501444221
Bus Ath Yes 0.0618216056
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8384980036
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2788559694
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4975478098
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5608473953
Bus Ath Yes 0.8773253444
Bus Ath Yes 0.3692349048
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.7329329379
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1822065272
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8097957047
Bus Ath Yes 0.1986927198
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1017504103
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.263241827
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7921050925
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6010921879
Bus Non_Ath No 0.804408602
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2825391665
Bus Non_Ath No 0.0642950096
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.694895466
Non_Bus Ath No 0.3728732296
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2672269766
Bus Ath No 0.3716969035
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.4383879949
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3922029312
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8336606811
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9803068996
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4954980731
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3226917792
Bus Ath No 0.4640939981
Bus Ath No 0.1840082816
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3842391979
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7227699615
Bus Ath Yes 0.3450524541
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7759151339
Bus Ath Yes 0.9718817972
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5386718037
Bus Ath No 0.2046932639
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0882075386
Bus Non_Ath No 0.2985873182
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3473165721
Bus Ath Yes 0.3033326312
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.355003074
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8441364475
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8784650326
Bus Ath No 0.9987074928
Bus Ath No 0.4047420395
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.581058939
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.865726525
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1026424528
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4493927042
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4275226278
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6904659028
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9372142517
Bus Ath Yes 0.2795815943
Bus Ath Yes 0.4792792569
Bus Ath No 0.7974316142
Bus Ath Yes 0.39099578
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6873892675
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9764895466
Bus Ath Yes 0.2364536278
Bus Ath Yes 0.5152977086
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7485103342
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1578466316
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1199260957
Bus Ath Yes 0.0630241888
Bus Ath No 0.016286921
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8674454263
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9612312641
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3601639296
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6586050771
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2968960844
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.9460646352
Bus Ath Yes 0.7049741408
Bus Ath No 0.0599438086
Bus Ath No 0.1570620959
Bus Ath Yes 0.3682289028
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9787776591
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3698265304
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1264331618
Non_Bus Ath No 0.985631678
Bus Ath Yes 0.3939222387
Bus Non_Ath No 0.8819768147
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3679965642
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3046042844
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1973131619
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5172376544
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.229266813
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7692493672
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3839877086
Bus Ath Yes 0.9076395853
Bus Ath No 0.6090779635
Bus Ath Yes 0.6975032933
Bus Ath Yes 0.8850737394
Bus Ath Yes 0.1651469082
Bus Ath Yes 0.3652736207
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4616935948
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3635791133
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2297490009
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7725363647
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9422520243
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5294121476
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2443072365
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6940244809
Bus Ath Yes 0.6309834095
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3415228138
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9646652797
Bus Non_Ath No 0.1665020828
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1414538427
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1302756453
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5847812513
Bus Ath Yes 0.5454792664
Bus Non_Ath No 0.6914721714
Bus Ath Yes 0.8004547435
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1517215239
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6197648434
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3569186351
Bus Ath No 0.5847312728
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.843751841
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9670751538
Bus Ath No 0.1834812271
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4638893922
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0995245949
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0265944289
Bus Non_Ath No 0.2180242002
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5159346021
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5668808157
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1976340265
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3024223304
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0992958306
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5295233117
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7946662527
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3462773048
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2206577872
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0409246399
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7309932586
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9077091491
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9393165225
Non_Bus Ath No 0.3784243768
Bus Non_Ath No 0.3385685545
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0521712803
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2106762014
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9790523272
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4505485844
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8764660498
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3456548521
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3725565697
Bus Ath Yes 0.0486611988
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3317648173
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1002325277
Non_Bus Ath No 0.032185819
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.805110385
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5138425185
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9333984665
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4256038553
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.016571758
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0955359515
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.731654737
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1882241858
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9948318797
Bus Ath No 0.7689758387
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6153255972
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.53301085
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2989164263
Bus Ath Yes 0.2422255384
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.751657012
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9060328969
Bus Ath Yes 0.3595354286
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2182473604
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6779822944
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6337965586
Bus Ath Yes 0.8135928646
Bus Non_Ath No 0.5252872216
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8553072663
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.206218432
Bus Ath No 0.1934696302
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2337600037
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.747116931
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.07517537
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5091802864
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8679333135
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.7589860941
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.416470347
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5985656109
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3827441591
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1284480777
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2763065301
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0162048913
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0091026165
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7688432013
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1153443853
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9145221244
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5550400681
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1134035965
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5325659458
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8832022242
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.7507685764
Bus Ath Yes 0.8177759228
Bus Ath Yes 0.9405614567
Bus Ath No 0.0656752808
Bus Ath Yes 0.2427737829
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3633944026
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.209241456
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7286237693
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9542041002
Bus Ath No 0.1330287673
Bus Ath Yes 0.8705875077
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6985778635
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.884056076
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3097650509
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2806437907
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1889651115
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6473675361
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0120562554
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8677930086
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2591173976
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.839930797
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7571731293
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1580673088
Bus Ath Yes 0.3627686237
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5982459854
Bus Non_Ath No 0.9752089019
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9403421543
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8534777803
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5567024915
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.55655702
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3772297298
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0883413322
Non_Bus Ath No 0.3998207697
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8992717368
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.9404549694
Bus Ath Yes 0.905979169
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.938708402
Bus Ath No 0.0949613714
Bus Ath No 0.2633156158
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3213287278
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6544534318
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.413957326
Bus Ath Yes 0.3681631477
Bus Ath No 0.5692511956
Bus Ath No 0.1304921012
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6716849288
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5626819644
Bus Ath Yes 0.4080896056
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6663160093
Bus Ath Yes 0.4933848197
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7878625788
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6844447219
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5626050663
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1164229105
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2246078618
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0818815877
Non_Bus Ath No 0.3184073983
Bus Ath Yes 0.5373540824
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3994285545
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0149529141
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4498030871
Bus Ath No 0.2264466925
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1655986649
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1818966867
Bus Ath No 0.4274356137
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2216166898
Bus Ath Yes 0.8568979634
Bus Ath No 0.9023032964
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6556125519
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3859047889
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2698138803
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5829194771
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.771373835
Bus Ath No 0.777317382
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.7743585128
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5286018463
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9453924902
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4437746364
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.840839997
Bus Ath No 0.6231446764
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0579373701
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9231127009
Bus Ath Yes 0.0382092717
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8162350225
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3359427611
Bus Ath No 0.053100782
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2052033177
Bus Ath Yes 0.7516598065
Bus Ath No 0.6907326564
Bus Ath Yes 0.8015407251
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6050652564
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7343411738
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5661559907
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2616548898
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5400554604
Bus Ath Yes 0.0157469145
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6299902838
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8657429944
Bus Ath Yes 0.5067958273
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.80701582
Bus Ath Yes 0.0168342222
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8785352648
Bus Ath No 0.9582481834
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.221136468
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5119716723
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.228900655
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5374326365
Bus Non_Ath No 0.1424043073
Bus Ath Yes 0.4715925897
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3672875231
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.8645932092
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6390629616
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0245297123
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8112176556
Bus Ath No 0.0130785191
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5784605959
Bus Ath No 0.0974529756
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1405885329
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0859081164
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2473199319
Bus Ath Yes 0.8549586551
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8987421525
Bus Non_Ath No 0.5216486555
Bus Ath Yes 0.107430589
Bus Ath Yes 0.0445719741
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5289920883
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.394528421
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1112738892
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3931455792
Bus Ath Yes 0.9415279804
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6320712881
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0710793873
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0369998582
Bus Non_Ath No 0.6429872162
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8669208421
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3632647749
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2404462376
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2172187372
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6800272837
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3003045089
Bus Ath Yes 0.3165577735
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5615920555
Bus Ath Yes 0.0316896351
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6089933144
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.116047239
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7118263171
Bus Ath Yes 0.1621054086
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3861728583
Bus Ath Yes 0.9173784703
Bus Ath No 0.9367782148
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.284351154
Bus Ath Yes 0.8104520455
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.7507472332
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7767910235
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4653832367
Bus Ath No 0.5875633251
Bus Ath No 0.561725809
Non_Bus Ath No 0.3944092344
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0381698791
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1942218853
Bus Non_Ath No 0.8252835351
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7755423577
Bus Ath No 0.9311303961
Bus Ath Yes 0.4639114577
Bus Non_Ath No 0.1542818798
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3957672222
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5058522113
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9872364983
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1765559804
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0510872535
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9970553345
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0645960692
Bus Ath Yes 0.3767379959
Bus Ath No 0.8401644792
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2245599178
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7137260951
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.187823325
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.468027181
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6215392885
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1796859002
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7026279319
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.4977939584
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.821385293
Bus Ath No 0.416434309
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3458265352
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.09086151
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1051451932
Bus Ath No 0.556618632
Bus Ath Yes 0.4928090943
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.7903549953
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4089830196
Bus Ath No 0.9380243476
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0130366079
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6556420522
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5926436786
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1169968275
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4954975525
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5485055414
Bus Ath Yes 0.8092805101
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7159386501
Bus Ath Yes 0.2858443929
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6927662416
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6697901273
Bus Ath Yes 0.8673240546
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6369592493
Bus Ath Yes 0.3824695996
Bus Ath No 0.4388320903
Bus Ath Yes 0.4779263441
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Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9526517771
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.8115244778
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8224100734
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4557948032
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.41559032
Bus Ath Yes 0.6963980003
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5312144605
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4690153593
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4072464585
Bus Ath Yes 0.4237312931
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0048896134
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.356839302
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0575144457
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4779841182
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7172924919
Bus Ath No 0.1249316493
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9933123398
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0167734104
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.9322184967
Bus Ath Yes 0.5428599825
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6665717612
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7034289004
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.190992003
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8205934941
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4145031509
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4066149696
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.652018116
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3944656783
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0342319411
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.379147926
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5573524534
Bus Ath No 0.1614799309
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5138298824
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3262936119
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9811117658
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1050644501
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8872069331
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5808372538
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3678604831
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4758021992
Bus Ath Yes 0.2141458029
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.9757452548
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5912879152
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7477483369
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0297513974
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0195394108
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4184973442
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.728156065
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4527146431
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7568703978
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4664690648
Bus Ath Yes 0.9167469599
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0697599623
Bus Ath Yes 0.6694421059
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9978783553
Bus Ath No 0.8049341574
Bus Non_Ath No 0.0577643345
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9437217763
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2867908965
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5478986145
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5706920052
Bus Non_Ath No 0.9258614088
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1399959339
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0962733926
Bus Ath Yes 0.0164044756
Bus Ath Yes 0.3727003406
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6289022341
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.7141622837
Bus Ath Yes 0.7829948698
Bus Ath No 0.0687630984
Bus Ath Yes 0.2960507892
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7587214244
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8975433578
Bus Ath Yes 0.9839698371
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6769410436
Bus Ath Yes 0.961871122
Bus Ath Yes 0.6387563223
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9638552836
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4504172506
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6049691812
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0394618455
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4789417503
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7379210145
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6556729872
Bus Ath No 0.9886160539
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2149786398
Bus Ath Yes 0.8154141713
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5876455865
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9698379268
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.9507409027
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3629079624
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9801966143
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9197228653
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9486527271
Bus Ath Yes 0.4906419107
Bus Non_Ath No 0.2421086316
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0385669831
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5913436322
Bus Ath Yes 0.5774376687
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5724038828
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9521041746
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5475381849
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2712465959
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5166238808
Bus Ath No 0.246551781
Bus Ath No 0.1177550009
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3810314407
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9033412485
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8492997585
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6973625175
Bus Ath Yes 0.5205395204
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1828474781
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6374382859
Bus Ath Yes 0.3899165606
Bus Ath Yes 0.0853728948
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9761642471
Non_Bus Ath No 0.7926224267
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5185853908
Bus Ath Yes 0.5063853974
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7004358459
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4004326159
Bus Non_Ath No 0.3607108852
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.723765828
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.669012426
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3969896286
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9258674711
Bus Ath Yes 0.6353015023
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2313215795
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.544158225
Bus Ath No 0.1852598725
Bus Ath Yes 0.739117279
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5816364921
Bus Non_Ath No 0.9015957537
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.38207736
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0601116278
Bus Ath No 0.3837014145
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.8983696092
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.298359672
Bus Ath Yes 0.8386755346
Non_Bus Ath No 0.0327780849
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6427053909
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0520819773
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.8134906341
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6734262363
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7485354845
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.3961794776
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.0319138418
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4241339295
Bus Ath Yes 0.1668817065
Bus Ath Yes 0.9782762446
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8002889561
Bus Ath No 0.0766844809
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3968207131
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.650503641
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1763265917
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0749544915
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3468975886
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4827808256
Bus Ath No 0.8791053579
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.4413969037
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1011946657
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6212147251
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6526926795
Bus Ath Yes 0.560224634
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1133741601
Bus Ath Yes 0.4638070474
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.6436841535
Non_Bus Ath No 0.590194873
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9255630013
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8960884641
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1017531602
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.736533171
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9149967171
Bus Ath Yes 0.6546610526
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1775924089
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3766540121
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9521753223
Bus Ath Yes 0.7105364051
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.9859501959
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4708091232
Bus Non_Ath No 0.9578142785
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7482154706
Bus Ath No 0.3189832529
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6822221292
Bus Ath Yes 0.4588871367
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4830695738
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3812912419
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9780692859
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5426216109
Bus Ath No 0.7955263568
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2752579839
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0290059543
Non_Bus Ath No 0.837256805
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4452604676
Bus Ath Yes 0.3078025301
Non_Bus Ath No 0.4707564659
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5428384898
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.4460033121
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7488578456
Bus Ath Yes 0.8862583588
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8157944763
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9719329713
Bus Ath Yes 0.5163252011
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2698234869
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4843486637
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0289113697
Bus Ath No 0.0236045633
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5492480373
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2212217639
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.914007306
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5137431906
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1212147872
Bus Ath No 0.9440316104
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5514761293
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3341542725
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.2519061696
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5669275685
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6818210543
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9232666444
Bus Ath No 0.405006687
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5559728971
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5766779063
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1658180584
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8740105775
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9893693309
Non_Bus Ath No 0.609053662
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.7649949414
Bus Ath No 0.4422645493
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.286507068
Bus Non_Ath No 0.4347068197
Bus Ath No 0.7931468026
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9330374475
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6568518274
Bus Ath Yes 0.523975256
Bus Ath Yes 0.075974407
Bus Ath No 0.194228499
Bus Non_Ath No 0.3908651861
Non_Bus Ath No 0.6241535858
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3551729626
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.8327682418
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0347872792
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.8723817458
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0812262385
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3681841664
Bus Ath Yes 0.8924978104
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6437022151
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2487049602
Bus Ath No 0.2582844682
Non_Bus Ath No 0.167263296
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.3694854081
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.5120658649
Bus Ath Yes 0.9376134239
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.0359801016
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1898871857
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.890581952
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.2553595188
Bus Ath Yes 0.2379742723
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5276184765
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9450445565
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1962749617
Bus Non_Ath No 0.1418633277
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2925662102
Bus Ath No 0.5397064768
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3581373446
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5689010666
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4250505603
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.655729337
Bus Ath No 0.4438151622
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.6953663839
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5032499648
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1271023381
Bus Non_Ath No 0.7033029117
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5817382408
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4483655525
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2956157485
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5749929059
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.8933681427
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2193745601
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.1562804912
Bus Non_Ath No 0.3638179292
Non_Bus Ath No 0.9908459156
Bus Ath Yes 0.0618807488
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.262248847
Bus Ath No 0.819391601
Bus Ath No 0.5358923589
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8388685173
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5489993547
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1240943383
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0572654069
Bus Ath Yes 0.5561721093
Non_Bus Ath No 0.8907339065
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.5752132954
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.041686408
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6607601689
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.6496943787
Bus Ath No 0.0053605649
Non_Bus Ath No 0.2538178231
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.1897283306
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.1705034235
Bus Ath No 0.8318016768
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.4543911644
Non_Bus Ath No 0.5290465638
Bus Ath Yes 0.5618026782
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.4610018758
Non_Bus Ath No 0.1316530014
Bus Ath Yes 0.3864069053
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.9843444834
Bus Non_Ath No 0.4336689977
Bus Ath No 0.1617079833
Bus Ath Yes 0.1200583195
Bus Ath Yes 0.9607276203
Bus Ath Yes 0.1927835084
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.61935889
Bus Ath Yes 0.508897824
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0536697784
Bus Ath Yes 0.5033500985
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 0.3484252501
Bus Ath No 0.6919313799
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.2801010301
Bus Non_Ath Yes 0.0261080275
Non_Bus Ath Yes 0.5329075508


College Athlete Cheated 1. Pivot Table Nationwide Average % Cheated
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Count of Cheated Column Labels Business 56%
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Row Labels No Yes Grand Total Nonbusiness
Non_Bus Ath No Bus 14 33 47
Bus Non_Ath Yes Ath 10 11 21
Bus Non_Ath Yes Non_Ath 4 22 26
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Non_Bus 27 26 53
Non_Bus Ath Yes Ath 15 11 26
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Non_Ath 12 15 27
Non_Bus Ath No Grand Total 41 59 100
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Non_Bus Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath No
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath No 2. Bar Chart
Non_Bus Ath No Bar chart starts in this cell – F22
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath Yes
Non_Bus Ath Yes
Bus Ath No
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath No
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Ath No
Bus Non_Ath No
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath Yes Insert the appropriate numbers into the hypothesis testing calculations below based upon your pivot table results. Note the results.
Non_Bus Ath No 3-7 Hypothesis Test
Non_Bus Non_Ath No Business Nonathlete vs. National Average Business Athlete vs. National Average Business vs. National Average Nonbusiness vs. National Average Business Athlete vs. Business Nonathlete
Bus Ath Yes Proportion Proportion Proportion Proportion p1 and p2 Proportion
Bus Non_Ath Yes Sample Size (n)
100 Sample Size (n)
Sample Size (n)
Sample Size (n)
Athlete Nonathlete
Non_Bus Ath Yes Response of Interest (ROI) Cheated Response of Interest (ROI) Cheated Response of Interest (ROI) Cheated Response of Interest (ROI) Cheated Sample Size (n1 or n2)
Bus Ath Yes Count for Response (CFR)
Count for Response (CFR)
Count for Response (CFR)
Count for Response (CFR)
Response of Interest (ROI) Cheated Cheated
Bus Non_Ath Yes Sample Proportion (pbar)
Sample Proportion (pbar)
Sample Proportion (pbar)
Sample Proportion (pbar)
Count for Response (CFR)
Non_Bus Ath No Sample Proportion (p1 or p2)
Bus Ath No Highlight your H0 and Ha Two Tail H0: p = po
Ha: p ≠ po
Left Tail H0: p ≥ po
Ha: p < po
Right Tail H0: p ≤ po
Ha: p > po
Highlight your H0 and Ha Two Tail H0: p = po
Ha: p ≠ po
Left Tail H0: p ≥ po
Ha: p < po
Right Tail H0: p ≤ po
Ha: p > po
Highlight your H0 and Ha Two Tail H0: p = po
Ha: p ≠ po
Left Tail H0: p ≥ po
Ha: p < po
Right Tail H0: p ≤ po
Ha: p > po
Highlight your H0 and Ha Two Tail H0: p = po
Ha: p ≠ po
Left Tail H0: p ≥ po
Ha: p < po
Right Tail H0: p ≤ po
Ha: p > po
Highlight your H0 and Ha Two Tail H0: p1-p2=0
Left Tail H0: p1-p2≥0
Right Tail H0: p1-p2≤0
Ha: p1-p2≠0
Ha: p1-p2<0
Ha: p1-p2>0
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Hypothesized Hypothesized Hypothesized Hypothesized Hypothesized Value
Non_Bus Ath Yes Confidence Coefficient (Coe) 0.95 Confidence Coefficient (Coe) 0.95 Confidence Coefficient (Coe) 0.95 Confidence Coefficient (Coe) 0.95
Bus Non_Ath Yes Level of Significance (alpha)
0.05 Level of Significance (alpha)
0.05 Level of Significance (alpha)
0.05 Level of Significance (alpha)
0.05 Level of Sig. α 0.05
Bus Ath No Point Estimation of Difference (Point)
Non_Bus Ath No Standard Error (StdError)
0.0000 Standard Error (StdError)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Standard Error (StdError)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Standard Error (StdError)
Bus Ath Yes Test Statistic (Z-stat)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Test Statistic (Z-stat)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Test Statistic (Z-stat)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Test Statistic (Z-stat)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Pooled Estimation of p (PE)
Non_Bus Non_Ath No Accept or Reject: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Standard Error (StdError)
Bus Non_Ath Yes Accept or Reject: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Test Statistic Z-stat
Bus Non_Ath Yes Accept or Reject: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Ath No Accept or Reject: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Non_Ath No p-value (Lower Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Lower Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Lower Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Lower Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Ath No p-value (Upper Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Upper Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Upper Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Upper Tail)
Non_Bus Ath No p-value (Two Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Two Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Two Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Two Tail)
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Lower Tail)
Non_Bus Ath No Accept or Reject p-value: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Upper Tail)
Non_Bus Ath Yes Accept or Reject p-value: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! p-value (Two Tail)
Non_Bus Ath Yes Accept or Reject p-value: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Left Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Bus Non_Ath Yes Accept or Reject p-value: Right Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Bus Ath No p-Lower Limit
ERROR:#NUM! p-Lower Limit
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-Lower Limit
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-Lower Limit
ERROR:#DIV/0! Accept or Reject p-value: Two Tail ERROR:#DIV/0!
Bus Ath No p-Upper Limit
ERROR:#NUM! p-Upper Limit
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-Upper Limit
ERROR:#DIV/0! p-Upper Limit
Bus Ath Yes
Non_Bus Ath No
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath Yes
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Bus Non_Ath No
Non_Bus Non_Ath No Determine the count of noncheaters and cheaters for business students, nonbusiness students, all athletes, and all non-athletes and place the relevant numbers in the purple/grey area of the table below and note the conclusion.
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath No 8. Test of Independence – Is cheating independent of college and athletic participation?
Non_Bus Ath Yes
Non_Bus Ath No Comparing the number of cheaters for business students, nonbusiness students, athletes, and nonathletes
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Bus Ath Yes Ho: all groups cheat at the same rate
Non_Bus Non_Ath No Ha: there is a difference in cheating based upon college or athletic participation
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes
Bus Ath No Independent Variable
Non_Bus Ath Yes
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Business Athlete Nonbusiness Athlete Business Nonathlete Nonbusiness Nonathlete Calculations
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Dependent variable Obs Exp Obs Exp Obs Exp Obs Exp Total ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Ath Yes Cheated ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! 0
Non_Bus Ath Yes Total 0 0 0 0 0
Non_Bus Non_Ath No
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Chi square test statistic = ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Non_Ath Yes Level of signicance 0.05
Bus Non_Ath No
Non_Bus Ath No # of rows 2
Bus Ath Yes # of columns 4
Bus Ath No df = 3 df = (rows – 1)(columns – 1)
Bus Ath Yes p-value = ERROR:#DIV/0!
Non_Bus Ath No Chi square critical 7.8147
Bus Non_Ath Yes
Conclusion: ERROR:#DIV/0!

No Ath Non_Ath Ath Non_Ath Bus Non_Bus 10 4 15 12 Yes Ath Non_Ath Ath Non_Ath Bus Non_Bus 11 22 11 15


Hypothesis Test Rejection Region (Tail) Critical Value Test Statistics Reject (Yes/No) P-value Interpretation
Business Nonathlete vs. National Average
Business Athlete vs. National Average
Business vs. National Average
Nonbusiness vs. National Average
Business Athlete vs. Business Nonathlete
Test of Independence
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