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Module 06 Worksheet- Development Assignment

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Erikson’s Theory Trust versus
Mistrust:

Learns to love and
be loved, eats
from parent to be
comfortable,
infants learn to
trust when they
have a need,
infants learn that a
parent will come
to fulfill the needs
(Silbert- Flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Autonomy vs.
shame or doubt

The child learns to
be independent
and make
decisions, take
pride in new
accomplishments
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Initiative vs. guilt

Learns how to do
things such as
fundamental
problem solving,
doing things that
are desirable to
the child,
initiating motor
activities, no
longer responding
or imitating other
children’s actions
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Industry vs.
inferiority

Children learn
initiative (learns to
do things well).
Encouraged to do
practical tasks,
praised and
rewarded for
finished results
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Identity vs. role
confusion

Adolescents learn
who they are and
what kind of
person they are
becoming
integrate different
self-images into a
whole sense of
person (Silbert-
Flagg & Pillitteri,
2017)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female;
she is trying to be
independent by
feeding herself,
cutting her food,
and dressing. She
becomes pleased
when she dresses
without her
mother’s help.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Cognitive
Development

Children learn
about the world
through senses,
understand the
permanence of
objects, cognitive
abilities develop,
capacity to
represent the
world mentally,
search for blocks
hidden under a
blanket (Silbert-
Flagg & Pillitteri,
2017)

Children use trial
and error to
discover new
characteristics of
objects and
events. Acquire
the internal ability
to represent the
world through
language,
detaching thought
from the physical
world; thinking is
based on
subjective
judgments, draw
conclude from
obvious facts
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Children look at
an object; they can
see only one of its
characteristics.
Acquire the
internal ability to
represent the
world through
language, a
thought process
dominated by how
the world looks
rather than how it
is (Silbert- Flagg
& Pillitteri, 2017)

A child who
understands water
does not change in
an amount just
because it is
poured from one
glass to another
has grasped the
concept of
conservation. Chil
dren begin
thinking logically
about events,
begin to
understand
conservation, can
mentally reverse
things, start to
think about how
other people
might feel or react
(Silbert- Flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Adolescence is
when cognition
achieves its final
form or formal
operational
thought begins.
Follow logical
argument without
reference to
content, develop
the ability to
abstract think, can
deal with
hypothetical
problems, capable
of thinking in
terms of
possibility
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female
trying to be
independent, and
she is using her
vocal and
language to
distinguish
different items
around her.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Language
Development

Begin making tiny
coos, differentiate
their cries,
talkative and
babbling by four
months, simple
vowel sounds by
five months of
age, generally
build up to 2-3
words a sentence
by 12 months of
age (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Frequently use
“no”; may use
“no” to refuse
tasks or because
they don’t
understand, begin
to be more
exposed to words
through
conversations and
books, gain
respect from
parents for what is
being said (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

The extent varies
on how much the
child has been
encouraged to ask
and participate in
the conversation,
frequent use of
language to ask
questions,
sentences begin
reaching 4-5
words, needs
simple answers to
order to promote
curiosity (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Talk in a complete
sentence, use
language with
meaning,
incorporate
language
permanently,
define objects by
use, usually by 7-
8 years of age
they can tell the
time in hours,
familiar with the
months of the
year, sometimes
use swear words
by mistakes
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Use complex
sentences, both
oral and written
language, able to
produce written
stories; follow
grammatical rules,
ability to make
correct inferences,
ability to
understand and
correctly use
figurative
language (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female;
she is trying to be
independent. She
repeatedly says no
when asked what
do you want? And
can you do it? Or
she is told she
cannot do
something.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Psych-Social
Development

Oral stage

The child
explores the
world using the
mouth, provided
oral stimulation
by pacifiers, do
not encourage
thumb sucking
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Anal stage

The child learns to
control urine and
defecation, the
emphasis of the
importance of
bowel and bladder
control (Silbert-
flagg & Pillitteri,
2017)

Phallic stage

The child learns
sexual identity
through awareness
of the genital area,
normal for genital
exploration to
occur (Silbert-
Flagg & Pillitteri,
2017)

Latent stage

Personality
development
appears nonactive
or dormant help
build self-esteem
through positive
activities and
encouragement
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Genital stage

Develop sexual
maturity to
establish good
relationships and
opportunities to
engage with the
opposite and own
sexual
relationships.
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female.
She is trying to be
independent. She
tells everything
she does when she
needs to use the
bathroom, to pee
or poop.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Moral
Development

N/A

The child does
right because
parents tell them
to avoid
punishment. Give
clear instructions
to avoid
confusion.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Carries out actions
to satisfy own
needs, will do
something for
others only in
exchange for
something done
for them, unable
to take
responsibility for
self-care because
meeting own
needs interferes
with this.

(Silbert- flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

The child follows
the rules because
of the need to be
good to other
people, finds rules
satisfying, follows
traditions of
authoritative
figures to keep the
system working.
May have
difficulty
modifying a
procedure because
one method may
not be correct.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

The social
contract follows
society’s
standards, is
responsible for
self-care, the
standard of adult
behavior begins to
be followed.
Many adults do
not reach this
level of moral
development.

(Silbert- flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female.
She is trying to be
independent. She
seems to know
between wrong
and right. Victory
prevents situations
that will get her in
trouble and avoid
punishment.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Discipline

N/A

Physical guidance
or removing child
from the given
situation (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Consistent
discipline is key
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Offer positive
reinforcement for
good behavior
enforce negative
consequences for
bad behavior
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Outgrow
discipline
strategies that
were previously
effective,
privileges
determined
by behavior
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Victory is a 4-
year-old female.
She is trying to be
independent.
Victory started
acting up and
disrupting all the
others. She was
excused from the
room and spoken
to outside. This
action helped her
make better
choices and
behave.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Physical
Development

Double birth
weight by 5-6
months, increase
height by nearly
50% in the first
year, the lower
jaw becomes
prominent, chest
circumference
lessens, abdomen
remains
protuberant until
walking is
achieved.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Weight gain
increased by about
5-6 lb a year
becomes leaner
with increased
muscle tone and a
more prominent
abdomen due to
increased
ingestion of food.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Children gain 4-5
lb a year, height
gain occurs but is
very minimal,
generally have
developed 30 of
their deciduous
teeth (Silbert-
flagg & Pillitteri,
2017)

Annual weight
gain of about 3-5
lb, brain growth is
complete by
around age 10,
puberty is
beginning for
some children in
this age group,
deciduous teeth
are lost, and
permanent teeth
start to come
through.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Initiation of body
hair growth, most
girls are a few
inches taller than
boys. Girls
experience
menarche and
develop breasts,
and long bones
begin to fuse
along to
epiphyseal line.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Victory has lost
all her baby
weight and is
growing lean. Her
weight and BMI
match her age
group.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Injury
Prevention

Baby swim
classes, smoke
alarms near infant
room, safe
changing areas,
keep toys clean,
lock away
medicines, and
cleaning products.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Restrict child
access to streets,
block doors and
stairways, cover
power outlets,
lock away
medications,
avoid access to
choking hazardous
foods, install and
use the correct car
seat

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Supervise play,
teach traffic and
roadway safety,
discuss fire safety,
possess and use
appropriate care
seat

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Wear helmets
when appropriate,
keep toys out of
the street, use
safety equipment
such as
mouthguards for
contact sports and
activities

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Supervision of all
parties and social
events, enforce
curfews, teach
drive safety,
educate on the use
of drugs and
alcohol.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

The doors,
windows,
medicine, and
laundry cabinet
are locked in the
home. Her mom is
constantly
monitoring her.
She wears a
helmet when
riding her bike
and sunscreen
when playing
outside.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Nutritional needs Breastmilk
generally supplies
a child with the
required amount
of nutrients,
fluids, and energy
up to about six
months, give baby
foods rich in iron
and zinc, solid
foods can be
introduced around
six months, avoid
juices and sugared
sweets, avoid nuts
and other choking
potential foods
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Should be
encouraged to eat
a variety of foods,
avoid sugary
foods and drinks,
limit fruit juices
and soft drinks
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Limit juices and
soft drinks, avoid
sugary sweets that
can cause
increased tooth
decay, encourage
intake of varying
foods and liquids
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Healthy foods and
nutritious snacks,
many food habits
start at this age
range; often the
nutritious snacks
provide nearly 1⁄4
total calorie
intake, always
have them
consume breakfast
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Extra energy for
growth should be
obtained through
nutrients, not just
empty calories,
balance takeout
food and
nutritional,
increased intake
of milk, yogurt,
and cheese for a
calcium boost;
adolescent girls
should be strongly
encouraged to
consume milk and
milk products
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Victory eats what
the family eats,
and they around
the table as a
family during
meals. Since she
was an infant, her
mom included
veggies in her
meals, so she is
not too picky. She
prefers water or
milk over juice
and eats fruits for
snacks.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Dental Care Good oral
hygiene is
essential even
before teeth
come in, wipe
gums with gauze
or cloth after
feeding, brush
with fluoride-
containing
toothpaste,
natural sugars
from milk, juice
or breastmilk can
cause tooth
decay, schedule
office visit after
first tooth
appearance but
no later than a
year (Shelby
Pediatric
Dentistry, 2019)

Ensure child
stops using a
bottle or sippy by
age 1, use
fluoride
toothpaste, don’t
give too many
snacks between
meals that are
sticky, no more
than 4-6oz of
juice daily, stops
sucking fingers or
pacifier by age 3
to prevent bite or
facial
development
issues (Shelby
Pediatric
Dentistry, 2019)

Begin to lose
primary teeth and
gain permanent
around age 6,
begin flossing
once teeth are
touching, pay
special attention to
brushing along the
gum line and back
teeth (Shelby
Pediatric
Dentistry, 2019)

Dental injuries are
common so
consider
mouthguards
during sports;
belief dental
sealants to cover
high-risk areas for
cavities as they
become more
common during
this age (Shelby
Pediatric
Dentistry, 2019)

By 12-13, all baby
teeth are lost, and
permanent teeth
have come in,
cavities are most
common due to
increased freedom
of food choices,
discuss options for
braces and
whitening,
preventative x-ray
to monitor
wisdom teeth
development
(Shelby Pediatric
Dentistry, 2019)

She has been
seeing the dentist
since age one. She
brushes her teeth
twice daily, and
her mom helps
floss her teeth.
She drinks bottled
water at home but
gets fluoride paste
on her teeth every
six months.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Sleep 3-6 months: start
developing night
and day patterns,
12-15 hours of
sleep each day,
may start
sleeping 2 hours
naps 2-3 times a
day
6-12 months:
more rest
happens at night,
ready for bed
between 6 and 9
pm, longer sleeps
of 6 hours a
night, daytime
naps lasting 30
min-2 hours a
day.

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

11-14 hours of
sleep, 10-12 hours
of sleep being
through the night,
1-2 hour naps
each day, often
fight bedtime
because they want
to stay up with the
family

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

10-13 hours of
sleep a night,
might have a day
nap lasting about
an hour

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

9-11 hours of
sleep at night,
children no longer
need a day nap
because they’re
getting adequate
sleep at night,
tired after school,
and are often
ready for bedtime
around 7:30 pm

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

8-10 hours of
sleep to maintain
alertness for
school during the
day, the average
for teens to want
to go to bed 11 pm
or later because of
the “body clock,”
often sleep in later
in the morning

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

She hates naps
and wants to play
all day, but her
mom implements
naps time. She
goes to bed at 8
pm each night and
gets 10 hours of
sleep.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Activity and Play
types

The best toys are
bright-colored
noisemakers; this
age loves bathtub
toys need toys that
help develop fine
motor skills
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

The brain is twice
as active as an
adult; motor
development
continues at a
rapid pace, take-
apart toys and
pop-up toys are
popular to create
curiosity (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Imagination and
interactive play,
dramatic play,
play telephone
and kitchen
appliances and
tools, language
and social skills
are practices
through make-
believe games
(Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Change
themselves in
play, puzzles, and
games that test the
knowledge or
involve strategy,
crafting becomes
popular (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

Play becomes
sophisticated and
symbolic, group
production,
electronic games
become popular,
books and music
become an
essential part of
life (Child
Development
Institute, 2019)

She plays with a
lot of toys that
create curiosity
within her. She
uses her
imagination when
playing and
creates her reality.
She loves playing
with her siblings
and is always
curious or asking
questions when
she doesn’t
understand
something.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent Observation
Data for [insert
age, gender, and
other relevant
information].
Example:
Female, Age 4,
Autistic.
*Only fill out this
column for the age
group you observed.

Vital Signs
Including the
type of Pain
assessment

Newborn

HR: 120-140/min
Temp: 97.9-98F
Resp: 30-60/min

Infant (1yo) HR:
90-130/min
Temp: 97-99F
Resp: 20-40/min

BP: 60-80/30-60
Pain: FLACC

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

HR: 80-120/min
Temp: 97.5-98.6F
BP: 90-100/50-65
Resp: 24-32/min
Pain: FLACC,
faces

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

HR: 70-110/min
Temp: 97.5-98.6F
BP: 95/57 average

Resp: 16-22/min
Pain: faces

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

HR: 60-100/min
Temp: 97.5-98.6F
BP: 95-110/55-70
Resp: 18-20/min
Pain: faces, 1-10

(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

HR: 55-90/min
Temp: 97.5-98.6F
BP: 110-120/60-
80

Resp: 12-20/min
Pain: 1-10
(Silbert-flagg &
Pillitteri, 2017)

Her BP is 94/55.
HR is 98/min,
temp is 98.2F, RR
is 18.

She seems happy
and running
around, and she
denies any pain.

Reference:

Child Development Institute. (2019, July 23). Watch them change from babies to children with developmental play. Child Development
Institute. https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/play-work-of-children/pl2/#gs.8q04al.

Silbert-flagg J., & Pillitteri A. (2017). Maternal and Child Health Nursing. [Bookshelf Ambassadored]. Retrieved
from https://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781496374578/

Shelby Pediatric Dentistry. (2019). Ages & Stages: Shelby Pediatric Dentistry: Dental care for kids: Birmingham, AL. Shelby Pediatric
Dentistry | Dental Care for Kids | Birmingham, AL. https://shelbypediatricdentistry.com/ages-stages-of-oral-health/.

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