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describe the dependent and independent variables of your proposed study, define their levels of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and provide operational definitions of each.

Variables and Operational Definitions
In order to carry out research, researchers must define variables in
terms of the actual procedures that will be used to measure or
manipulate them. Operational definitions provide details regarding the
procedures needed to measure a variable and if written precisely, can
increase the measurement’s reliability and validity. Using your topic for
the final paper (DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER IS MY FINAL
TOPIC), describe the dependent and independent variables of your
proposed study, define their levels of measurement (i.e., nominal,
ordinal, interval, or ratio), and provide operational definitions of each.
Describe the rationale behind the definitions created, and how the
adequacy of operational definitions can affect validity and reliability.
Post should be at least 300 words.
Resources
Readings
Textbook:
Cozby, P. (2020). Methods in behavioral research (14th ed). McGraw-Hill. ISBN:
9781260380095
Chapter 4: Fundamentals Research Issues
Chapter 5: Measurement Concepts
Appendix A: Reporting Research
Articles
Pajares, F. (2007). Elements of a proposal. Retrieved from
http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/proposal.html (Links to an external site.)
Website
Mongan-Rallis, H. (n.d.). Guidelines for writing a literature review. Retrieved from
http://www.d.umn.edu/~hrallis/guides/researching/litreview.html (Links to an
external site.)
Recommended Resources
Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) (2017). APA style. Retrieved from
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/ (Links to an external site.)
Vanguard University & Degelman, D. (2017). APA style essentials. Retrieved from
http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.aspx?doc_id=796 (Links to
an external site.)
Walonick, D. S. (2017). The research process. StatPac. Retrieved from
http://www.statpac.com/research-papers/research-process.htm
APA 7TH ED. REFERENCES GUIDE
Articles
*When citing between two or 20 authors, list last name followed by a comma and initials for each one, and precede the
final author’s name with an ampersand (&). When citing 21 authors or more, list the first 19, then precede the name of the
final author with an ellipses (…).
Online journal article with DOI
*Treat texts without DOI and found only in a database the same as print versions. Do not use a database hyperlink.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp. https://doi.org/…
Beattie, B. R., & LaFrance, J. T. (2006). The law of demand versus diminishing marginal utility. Review
of Agricultural Economics, 28(2), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00286.x
Online journal article without DOI, available online
Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp. URL
Collins, M. E., Garlington, S., & Cooney, K. (2015). Relieving human suffering: Compassion in social
policy. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 95–120.
https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3889&context=jssw
Magazine article in a database
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Publication Title, volume(issue), pp–pp.
Dafny, L. S., & Lee, T. H. (2016, December). Health care needs real competition and every stakeholder
has a role. Harvard Business Review, 76-87.
Magazine article retrieved online
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Publication Title, volume(issue), pp–pp. URL
Clay, R. A. (2014, December). Taking action against Ebola. Monitor on Psychology, 45(11), 14.
https://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/12/ebola
Updated November 2020
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Newspaper article in a database
*Only use this category if the article has an associated daily or weekly newspaper. If the article is from a news website (BBC News,
CNN, Huffpost, etc.), use the format for the article on a news website in the webpages category.
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper Title, Section.
Rowe, K. (2020, January 8). Training center shut down due to termites. The San Diego Union Tribune,
C3.
Newspaper article retrieved online
*Only use this category if the article has an associated daily or weekly newspaper. If the article is from a news website (BBC News,
CNN, Huffpost, etc.), use the format for the article on a news website in the webpages category.
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper Title. URL
McAllister, J. (2017, July 5). Beaver Stadium prepares for inaugural concert. Centre Daily Times.
https://www.centredaily.com/entertainment/this-weekend/article159672269.html
Blog post
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Name. URL
Hardy, M. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally). Freakonomics.
http://freakonomics.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/
Books, ebooks, and book chapters
Ebook with DOI, available online
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first). Publisher
Name. https://doi.org/xxxx
Williams, F. M., & Emerson, C. J. (2008). Becoming leaders: A practical handbook for women in
engineering, science, and technology. ASCE Press, ASME Press, & Society of Women Engineers.
https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784409206
Updated November 2020
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Ebook without DOI, but with non-database URL, available online
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first). Publisher
Name. URL
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1999). The elements of style (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf
Ebook without DOI, available only in database
Author, A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first). Publisher Name.
Connell, C. M., & Sole, K. (2013). Essentials of college writing (2nd ed.). Bridgepoint Education.
Book (print) with author(s)
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first). Publisher
Name.
Daniell, E. (2006). Every other Thursday: Stories and strategies from successful women scientists. Yale
University Press.
Book (print) with editor(s)
Editor, A., & Editor, B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first).
Publisher Name.
Lane, C. (Ed.). (2008). Playing with words: The spoken word in artistic practice. Cornerhouse
Publications.
Work in an anthology or collected works
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book
(edition, if other than the first, pp. XX–XX). Publisher Name. URL (Original work published date)
Shuhua, L. (2007). The night of midautumn festival (N. K. Mao, Trans.). In J. S. M. Lau & H. Goldblatt
(Eds.), The Columbia anthology of modern Chinese literature (2nd ed., pp. 95–102). Columbia
University Press. https://bit.ly/2MKKUOp (Original work published 1928)
Updated November 2020
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Chapter in an edited ebook, with DOI
*Treat texts found in a database without a DOI the same as print version. Citation ends after “Publisher Name.”
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book
(edition, if other than the first, volume, if any, pp. XX–XX). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/…
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik,
P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing
human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016
Chapter in an edited ebook without DOI, available online
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book
(edition, if other than the first, pp. XX–XX). Publisher Name. URL
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, and National Resource Center for
Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. (2011). Program activities for healthy
development. In Caring for our children: National health and safety performance standards:
Guidelines for early care and education programs (3rd ed., pp. 47–87). American Academy of
Pediatrics; American Public Health Association. http://nrckids.org/files/CFOC3_updated_final.pdf
Webpages & Websites
*A webpage will never be the home page of the URL. It is part of a greater whole that is the website. When author and site name are
the same, omit the site name from the source element. Provide the most specific date possible. Include a retrieval date only when
the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived.
Webpage with an author
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name. URL
Lad, K. (2016, August 28). An overview of the colorful traditional Mexican clothing. Buzzle.
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/traditional-mexican-clothing.html
Updated November 2020
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Webpage with no individual author
Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name (if different than organization). URL
National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.
https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rns-from-zika
Webpage with no author or organization
Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day). URL
Freud’s structural theory: The id, the ego, and the superego. (n.d.). www.vakkur.com/psy/freud.html
Report: Corporate/government, group author, retrieved online
*If a report, series, or issue number is given, provide this in parentheses after the title. Describe less common forms of reports in
square brackets after the title like the example below. If the report number is available, and the report needs a special description,
place the parentheses before the brackets in the reference entry.
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report number, if available) [Description, if needed].
Publisher Name (omit if the same name as group author). DOI or URL
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019, July). The DHS strategic plan: Fiscal years 2020–2024
[Agency strategy publication].
https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_0702_plcy_dhs-strategic-plan-fy2024.pdf
Report: Database, nongovernmental organization
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report number, if
available). Publisher Name (omit if the same name as group author). DOI (if available)
Lingenfelter, P. E., Wright, D. L., & Bisel, T. M. (2005). State higher education finance, FY 2004. State
Higher Education Officers.
Updated November 2020
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Article on a news website
*Use this category for news articles that are not associated with a daily or weekly newspaper. When the author of the webpage and
the site name are the same, omit the site name from the reference entry.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Site Name. URL
Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Recycling collectors bothered by messy bins. CNN.
https://www.cnn.com/article/recycling-collectors-bothered-by-messy-bins
Entire website
Author or Organization. (Year, Month Day). Title of website. Site name (omit if the same name as
author/organization). http://
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.). Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Retrieved January 28, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov
Online dictionary, encyclopedia, or other reference work
*When an online reference work is continuously updated and there is no stable or archived version of the work, include a retrieval
date.
Editor, A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of publication. Site Name/Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved December 6, 2019, from
https://www.merriam-webster.com
Single entry in an online reference work
Author, A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (edition, if other than the
first). Site Name/Publisher. URL
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring
2019 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/
Updated November 2020
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Wikipedia
*Many wikis have what is called a permanent link. This is the link to the specific version of the page you are using. When citing
sources that change often, it is recommended that you use the permanent link on your references list. For example, when citing a
Wikipedia page, click on “Permanent Link” within the left navigation menu to populate the permanent URL. Use this for your list.
Title of listing. (Publication Date). In Title of Wiki. URL
User experience. (2016, January 13). In Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_experience&oldid=836732966
Dissertation or thesis from a database
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis, Name of
College]. Database Name.
Hoy, C. A. (2010). The adult learner in the online writing course [Doctoral dissertation, University of
Minnesota]. Proquest Digital Dissertations.
Classroom communications – Instructor guidance (lecture video or resource)
Last Name, Initial. (Year, Date). Title of guidance [Instructor guidance]. URL
Jones, M. (2020, January 6). Writing an annotated bibliography [Instructor guidance].
http://login.university.edu
Classroom communications – Discussion board post
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Name of discussion thread [Online discussion board]. URL
Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Week 3 discussion [Online discussion board]. http://login.university.edu
Updated November 2020
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Multimedia, Images, Video, & Audio
Motion picture or documentary film, available online
*The director should be credited as the author of a film; if the director is unknown, someone in a similar role can be credited instead
to aid readers in retrieving the work (e.g., Host, Producer, Composer, or Artist).
Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture or documentary film [Description]. Production
Company. URL
Sorkin, R. (Director). (2018). Tidewater [Film]. American Resilience Project; Sorkin Productions.
https://www.pbs.org/video/tidewater-mgqr0m
Motion picture or documentary film, unavailable online
Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture or documentary film [Description]. Production
Company.
Reiner, R. (Director). (1987). The princess bride [Film]. ACT III Communications.
YouTube or other streaming internet video
*For online streaming videos, the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did
not create the work.
Author, A. [Screen name, if different]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Platform Name. URL
Learn English with Emma. (2013, January 30). 5 tips to improve your writing [Video]. YouTube.

Entire TV series
Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Date range of series). Title of series [TV series]. Studio or
distributor.
Shore, D. (Executive Producer). (2004-2012). House [TV series]. Fox Broadcasting.
Updated November 2020
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Single TV episode
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X,
Episode XX) [TV series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer),Title of series. Studio or distributor.
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005, February 6). Failure to communicate (Season 1,
Episode 11) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive Producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.
Music album
Artist, A. (Copyright year). Title of album [Medium of recording]. Label.
Brooks, G. (1989). No fences [Album]. Capitol Nashville.
Single song or track
Artist, A. (Copyright year). Title of song. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Label.
Brooks, G. (1989). Friends in low places. On No fences [Album]. Capitol Nashville.
Podcast episode
Host, H. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast episode (No. if available). [Audio podcast episode].
In Title of podcast. Production Company. URL
Raz, G. (Host). (2019, October 11). Erasing the stigma [Audio podcast episode]. In TED radio hour. NPR.
https://www.npr.org/programs/ted-radio-hour/764651758/erasing-the-stigma
TED talk, from TED website
*When the TED Talk comes from TED’s website, use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the
uploader as the author to aid in retrieval.
Speaker, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. TED Conferences. URL
Stevenson, B. (2012, March). We need to talk about an injustice [Video]. TED Conferences.
https://www.tedtalks.com/bryan_stevenson_we_need_to_talk_about_an_injustice
Updated November 2020
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TED talk, from YouTube
TED. (Year, Month Day). Name of Speaker: Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL
TED. (2012, March 5). Bryan Stevenson: We need to talk about an injustice [Video]. YouTube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c2t0p70xyQ8
Image with an author
*Note about copyright laws: As long as there is no intention of publication, a student can use images in a course paper without
obtaining written permission. There are copyright laws for using questionnaires, surveys, or other materials from a published source
that is not public domain, so be sure to refer to the rules if you have questions about whether or not you can reprint any materials.
Photographer/Publisher Name. (Year). Title of image [Image type]. Title of site of image. URL
Sijgers, H. (2014). Sidewalk [Photograph]. Flickr.
https://farm6.staticflickr.com/5024/5691941274_0819b1e5a3.jpg
Image without an author
Title of work [Type of image]. (Year). Title of image site. URL
Flu epidemic [Photograph]. (1919). History.net. https://www.history.net/photo/flu-epidemicart/collections
Imagine without author, title, or date
[Subject and type of work]. Title of image site. URL
[Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. Pix. http://www.pix.com/sleepinganimals
Citing Legal Sources
*For information on citing legal materials, see our Citing Legal Sources page.
Updated November 2020
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Other
Conference paper presentation
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation. [Paper presentation]. Title of Conference, City,
State, Country.
Fraenza, C. & Nagle, L. (2015, March 2-4). The use of plickers to increase student achievement and
engagement: An informal implementation. [Paper presentation]. Teaching of Psychology
Conference, Farmingdale, NY, United States.
Mobile app
App Creator. (Year). Title of app or software (Version number) [Mobile app]. App Location. URL
Gowalla. (2011). Groupon (Version 16.15) [Mobile app]. App Store. http://itunes.apple.com
Tweet
Name of Group or Author, A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Tweet text [Note thumbnail, image, or
link, if in original Tweet] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL
Macdonald, N. [@normmacdonald]. (2020, January 23). My mother and I are doing a Q and A on
Instagram! Follow me and ask us anything! [Link provided]. [Tweet]. Twitter.

Facebook post or other social media
Name of Group or Author, A. [Username, if different]. (Year, Month Day). Content of post up to first 20
words [Description]. Site Name. URL
Douglas, D. (2020, January 23). Why is it that when I do everything that is asked of me, including sitting
quietly through a work week [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.
http://www.facebook.com/douglasd2016
Updated November 2020
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1
Title of Your Essay
Your First and Last Name
The University of Arizona Global Campus
Course Code: Name of Course (e.g. ENG 122: English Composition II)
Instructor Name
Due Date
2
Title of Your Essay
Start the first paragraph here, which should introduce your reader to the subject you are
writing about. Do not label this paragraph as “Introduction.” Instead, simply write your paper’s
title as a level 1 heading: bold, centered, with title case. To learn more about what an
introduction should include, see the following resource: Introductions & Conclusions. You can
use this template to help you format your paper. For longer papers, include level headings as
you will see throughout this paper to help guide the reader through your paper. Your thesis
statement should go at the end of your introduction.
The Writing Process
Spend time planning your paper. A good practice is to brainstorm and research ideas and
decide how to express the main idea or thesis and what to include. Once you have a rough idea of
what you want to discuss or argue, create an outline or to help you organize your paper and the
evidence you plan to present in each body paragraph.
Writing the Body Paragraphs
Always begin with a topic sentence in your own words. We have several resources to
help you write a strong body paragraph, such as How to Write a Body Paragraph and the
Integrating Research (UAGC Writing Center, 2019). Evidence is provided as the supporting
sentences in each body paragraph. As mentioned by UAGC Writing Center (2019), an in-text
citation must be used when providing information from a source into your paper—see next
section. End each body paragraph with your own ideas or analysis on the topic of the paragraph.
Using Citations Correctly
In addition to being well-written, each paragraph should include an in-text citation to all
information and evidence that is summarized, paraphrased, or quoted from outside sources. The
3
University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center (2019) provides many resources to help
you follow correct citation style and gives lessons and examples of how to paraphrase and cite
sources. There are two ways that you can format an in-text citation: parenthetical or narrative. A
parenthetical citation saves all the information for the end of the sentence (Author, Year).
However, a narrative citation includes the Author (Year) “earlier in the sentence and saves the
location information for the end, keeping in mind that a page number is required for a direct
quote, but not for a paraphrased sentence” (p. ##). If you do not have a page number for your
type of source, you can find information on citing it in the in-text citation guide.
Level 2 Heading (Bold, Flush Left, Title Case)
Level headings can be placed anywhere in your paper as a way to classify or organize
your paper into sections. There are five levels; the first three levels are more commonly used in
graduate-level assignments, whereas levels four and five may be used in longer papers (e.g.,
dissertation). Use level 2 headings to break level 1 into categories, level 3 to break up level 2,
and so on. Do not move to a lower level of heading if there is only one section. As a general rule,
check with your instructor about formatting expectations.
Level 3 Heading (Bold, Flush Left, Italic, Title Case)
Likewise, to show your readers where the paragraph begins when using a level 3 heading
would be a great idea.
Level 4 Heading (Bold, Indented, Title Case). In longer papers, you may use a level 4
heading to create even further subsections. In this case, note that the paragraph begins directly
after a period on the same line as the level 4 heading. The level 5 headings follow the exact same
conventions, only they would also be italicized.
4
Using Tables, Graphs, Images, and Appendices
For some papers and reports, you may choose to add a table, graph, or image
within the body of the draft. Or you may choose to include an appendix at the end of your paper.
These can help to provide a visual representation of data or other information that you wish to
relay to your reader. Follow this guidance to understand when and how to use these features.
Conclusion
You only need to label the conclusion with a heading as shown here if you have a lengthy
paper and have included headings for each section. Otherwise, you can simply begin your
conclusion as your final paragraph in your paper. The conclusion should do more than
summarize what you’ve stated already—it should also include the importance or significance of
the topic under discussion. Learn more about writing a strong conclusion paragraph.
5
References
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp.
https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Author, A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
http://doi.org/xxx.xxxx.xxxxxxxx
Author, A. (Year). Title of work. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of anthology. Publisher.
https://non-database-URL (Original work published date)
Director, A. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Description, e.g. Motion picture]. Production
Company. https://non-database-URL
**For help formatting your reference page, please see our Formatting Your References List
page. Be sure that each source you’ve used has both an in-text citation and a references
list citation.

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