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Paper 1: Identifying Social Psychology in Everyday Life. For this paper you are asked to describe 10 examples of social psychological phenomena, processes, or concepts that you spot (or would spot) in an everyday situation. The easiest way to do this is to choose a location where there are people (e.g., a park, a city street, the beach) and observe the people in that location. For each example you choose, make sure to define the phenomenon, process, or concept in your own words followed by a clear description of how the person or people represented or displayed behaviors reflective of the phenomenon, process, or concept. For instance, imagine you saw someone trip and immediately thought that the person must be clumsy, but then you realized that the person tripped over a power cord that was partially covered. In this example, you would use the fundamental attribution error to explain your judgment of the person. Then you would describe the process in which you first made a judgment about the person (she is clumsy), while discounting the situational influence (the partially hidden power cord). Your grade will be based on how well you use social psychological to describe (in your own words) behavior that occurs in everyday life.

◆ Social Roles
◆ What is Gender?
 How is it constructed?
◆ Gender Roles
◆ Learning Gender
 Social sources
◆ The Many Hats we Wear
 When norms are undefined not a social role
 We are actors playing a role
 Roles have powerful effects
◆ High and Low Status
 Even in experiments
 We adopt role attributes
◆ Role Reversal
 Perspective taking
◆ What is Sex?
◆ What is Gender?
◆ Sex is…
◆ Gender is…
◆ Bem’s Sex Role Inventory (1971)
 Masculine
 Feminine
 Androgynous
 Undifferentiated
(1) “Almost Always Never” to (7) “Almost Always True”
1 self-reliant
2 yielding
3 helpful
4 defends own beliefs
5 cheerful
6 moody
7 independent
8 shy
9 conscientious
10 athletic
11 affectionate
12 theatrical
13 assertive
14 flatterable
15 happy
16 strong personality
17 loyal
18 unpredictable
19 forceful
20 feminine
21 reliable
22 analytical
23 sympathetic
24 jealous
25 leadership ability
26 sensitive to other’s
27 truthful
28 willing to take risks
29 understanding
30 secretive
31 indecisive
32 compassionate
33 sincere
34 self-sufficient
35 soothes hurt feelings
36 conceited
37 dominant
38 soft spoken
39 likable
40 masculine
41 warm
42 solemn
43 takes a stand
44 tender
45 friendly
46 aggressive
47 gullible
48 inefficient
49 acts as a leader
50 childlike
51 adaptable
52 individualistic
53 does not swear
54 unsystematic
55 competitive
56 nurturing
57 tactful
58 ambitious
59 gentle
60 conventional
Police officer
◆ Cultural Variations
“What kind of marriage do you think is the most
South Africa
United States
Both Work
Husband Works
1. In our society relations between men and women are fair.
2. The division of labor in families generally operates as it should.
3. Gender roles need to be radically restructured.
4. For women, the United States is the best country in the world to live.
5. Most policies relating to gender and the sexual division of labor serve the greater good.
6. Everyone (male or female) has a fair shot at weatlh and happiness.
7. Sexism in society is getting worse every year.
8. Society is set up so that men and women usually get what they deserve.
◆ Reverse Code Questions (3, 7)
◆ Add Your Responses and Divide by (8)
◆ Higher scores mean more support for the existing
gender relations in our society (in some sense how
“traditional” you see yourself and society)
◆ Institutional Support
 Advertisements
 TV shows
⚫ “Married with children”
 Children’s books
⚫ “What girls can be”
◆ The Powers of Conformity (Peer Pressure)
 “But all my friends do it”
Chapter 10
Types of Observational Learning
 Observational Learning
 Learning by observing events and their consequences
 Social Observational Learning
 An observer (O) views a model’s behavior (Mb) and its
positive and / or negative consequences (S+/-)
 O[Mb => S+/-]
 Asocial Observational Learning
 An observer (O) views an event (E) and its positive and /
or negative consequences (S+/-)
 O[E => S+/-]
New Vocabulary and Concepts
 For Social Observation
 Vicarious Reinforcement
 Vicarious Punishment
 For Asocial Observation
 Ghost Condition
 Imitation
 To behave in a way that resembles the behavior of a
 Over-Imitation
 The tendency to imitate irrelevant acts
 Generalized Imitation
 You can reinforce the imitation of ‘particular acts’, and
also the general ‘tendency’ to imitate
Variables affecting Observational
 Difficulty of the Task
 More difficult a task, Less learning by observation
 Skilled vs. Unskilled Model
 Skilled=ideal Unskilled=ideal and not ideal
 Characteristics of the Model
 Attractive, Powerful, Popular (Charlie Munger)
 Characteristics of the Observer
 Consequences of Observed Acts
Theories of Observational Learning
 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
 Centers on Four Cognitive Processes
 Attentional: self-directed exploration of environment
 Retentional: representing model’s behavior (words,
images, etc) to aid recall
 Motor-reproductive: symbolic representations to
guide action
 Motivational: evaluating the consequences of imitation
 Operant Learning Model
 Variation of Operant Learning (i.e. Environment)
Applications of Observational
 Education
 Social Change
Chapter 13
Physical Characteristics
 The physical structure of an individual or species sets
limits on what it can learn
 For example, chimpanzees are apparently incapable of
learning to speak due to the nature of their vocal
Nonheritability of Learning
 Learned behavior is not passed on to future
 This means each individual must learn many of the
same skills acquired by its parents
 This limits what any one individual can learn in its
Heredity and Learning Ability
 There is strong evidence that genes contribute to
differences within and between species in learning
Neurological Damage
 Disease
 Malnutrition
 Head Trauma
 Neurotoxins
Critical Periods
 Animals may prepared to learn certain things at
certain stages in their development
 Critical periods are important for social behavior
 Genetically Prepared
 Genetically Unprepared
 Genetically Contraprepared
◆ Routes to Persuasion
 Central and peripheral
◆ Elements and Principles of Persuasion
 How to sell a banana
 Who says it
 Message content
 How you say it
 Who you are
Central Route
And Motivated
High Effort
Agree Or
Clear Argument
Long Lasting
Not Analytical
Or Involved
Low Effort
Peripheral Cues
Rules Of Thumb
Cues Trigger
Liking Acceptance
Only Temporarily
Peripheral Route
◆ Who Says it (The Communicator)
◆ What is Said (Message Content)
◆ How it is Said (Channel of Communication)
◆ To Whom it is Said (The Audience)
◆ Authority
◆ Scarcity
◆ Reciprocity
◆ Consistency
◆ Social Proof
◆ Liking
◆ Who Says it (The Communicator)
 Credibility
 Attractiveness And Liking
◆ What is Said (Message Content)
 Reason versus emotion
⚫ Shallower processing
⚫ Influence of peripheral cues
 Discrepancy
 Primacy and Recency
◆ How it is Said (Channel of Communication)
 Active versus passive reception
 Personal versus media influence
◆ To Whom it is Said (The Audience)
 How old are they?
⚫ The time is now (teens to early twenties)
 What are they thinking
⚫ Pleasant image, peripheral persuasion
⚫ Need for cognition
Module 9: Learning
Three Kinds of Learning
1. Classical conditioning: learning in which a neutral
stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response
that was originally produced by a different stimulus.

Discovered by Ivan Pavlov

Pavlov had previously won a Nobel Prize for his
studies on the reflexes involved in digestion.
2. Operant conditioning
3. Cognitive learning
Procedure: Classical Conditioning

Carla’s example
Had several hours of dental work done; process was
painful & uncomfortable
◼ While getting dental work, smelled the dentist’s
aftershave, the same aftershave her boyfriend wears
◼ Smell of boyfriend’s aftershave made her anxious

Procedure: Classical conditioning
● Step 1: choose stimulus & response
◼ Choose neutral stimulus: stimulus that causes a
sensory response, but does not produce the reflex
◼ For Carla, the neutral stimulus is: aftershave scent;
sensory response is smelling aftershave, but doesn’t
affect her
◼ Choose unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that
naturally triggers a response, such as physiological
◼ For Carla, US is dental procedures
Procedure: Classical conditioning

Step 1 continued
Select & measure the unconditioned response:
unlearned, natural response to the unconditioned
◼ For Carla, the UR is anxiety

Procedure: Classical conditioning

Step 2: Establishing classical conditioning
Conduct a trial: present the neutral stimulus & short
time later, present the unconditioned stimulus
◼ Neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
–For Carla, smell of aftershave (NS) + dental
procedures (US)
feelings of anxiety (UCR)

Procedure: Classical conditioning

Step 3:Testing for conditioning
Present conditioned stimulus without the
unconditioned stimulus
◼ conditioned stimulus: previously neutral stimulus
triggers a response
◼ Ask: does a conditioned response occur?
◼ Conditioned response (CR): learned response to a
neutral stimulus
◼ For Carla, aftershave smell (CS) elicited anxiety (CR)

Famous Study: Pavlov’s Dogs

Neutral stimulus: bell; unconditioned stimulus:
food; unconditioned response: salivation
2. Trials: Bell (NS) + food (UCS)
3. Test: Does the bell (CS) trigger salivation (CR)?
Pavlov found that it did
Pavlov: Salivary Conditioning
Another Famous Study: Little Albert
John Watson & Rosalie Rayner published in
1920; classic experiment on conditioning
◼ Subject: Eleven-month-old infant known as
Little Albert
◼ Developed a conditioned emotional response
through the following experiment:
-White rat (NS) + loud bang (UCS)
response (CR)

Another Famous Study: Little Albert
Other Conditioning Concepts
● Generalization: transfer of effects of
conditioning to similar stimuli
◼ Carla may also feel anxiety with products
that smell similar to aftershave
● Discrimination: Subject learns to respond to
one stimulus, but not to a similar stimulus;
may have adaptive value
–Carla doesn’t feel anxious after smelling nail
Other Conditioning Concepts cont.
●Extinction: conditioned stimulus is repeatedly
presented without the unconditioned stimulus & the
conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the
conditioned response
–Carla would no longer react to aftershave
Application: treatment of phobias
● Spontaneous recovery: conditioned response
reappears after being extinguished; doesn’t persist
for long & lesser magnitude
–Carla sees dentist & response to aftershave reappears
Adaptive Value of Classical

Adaptive value: usefulness of certain traits that
have evolved in animals & humans & tend to
increase their chances of survival.

Taste-aversion learning: associating a particular
sensory cue with getting sick & thereafter avoiding
that sensory cue in the future; can last weeks,
months, or years. ex: rats & poison bait, avoiding a
drink after getting sick
Adaptive Value of Classical
Conditioning cont.

Taste-aversion learning was inconsistent with
belief that classical conditioning required many
Psychologist John Garcia explained it with the
concept of preparedness
Preparedness: phenomenon that animals &
humans are biologically prepared to associate
some combinations of conditioned &
unconditioned stimuli more easily than others.
Examples of adaptive value of
classical conditioning:
Salivating when seeing or thinking about food
Conditioned emotional response: feeling positive or
negative emotion when experiencing a stimulus that
initially accompanied a pleasant or painful event,
such as a shot
● Part of brain responsible for classical conditioning:
-cerebellum for motor responses
-for emotional response, the amygdala is responsible

Does this elicit a response?
Theories of Classical Conditioning

Stimulus substitution: neural association forms
in the brain between the neutral stimulus &
unconditioned stimulus. After trials, neutral
stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and
acts like a substitute for the unconditioned
stimulus. (bell substitutes for food)
Theories of Classical Conditioning

Contiguity theory: classical conditioning occurs
because two stimuli (NS & UCS) are paired close
together in time (contiguous). Consequently,
neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned
stimulus, which elicits the conditioned response.
(bell & food are paired, bell becomes CS &
causes salivation)
Theories of Classical Conditioning

Cognitive perspective: an organism learns what
to expect; one stimulus (NS) predicts the other
Widespread support for this theory
Cultural Diversity: Conditioning
Dental Fears

Rates of dental fears varies by country; dental
fear is greater in the U.S. & Asia than in
Scandinavian countries
Rates differ because of availability of dental
care; free & easily available in Scandinavian
countries; receive regular dental care
Neither America nor Japan have free, universal
coverage; many wait until they have serious
and/or painful dental problems
Cultural Diversity: Conditioning
Dental Fears cont.

Researchers have found that the majority of
dental fears are acquired in childhood or
adolescence through classical conditioning; may
make individuals avoid checkups or seek
treatment only for emergency problems
To reduce dental fear, must receive nonpainful
dental treatment, which will extinguish some of
conditioned emotional responses
Examples of Classical Conditioning

Fear of needles injections, or seeing blood
Anticipatory nausea: feelings of nausea that are
elicited by stimuli associated with nauseainducing chemotherapy treatments; can be in
anticipation of treatment; ex: Michelle
experienced nausea when smelling her dish soap
that smelled like the treatment room
Difficult to treat with drugs
◼ Can be treated with systematic desensitization

Systematic Desensitization

Procedure based on classical conditioning in which a
person imagines or visualizes fearful or anxietyprovoking stimuli & immediately uses deep relaxation
to overcome the anxiety
Form of counterconditioning; it replaces fear & anxiety
with relaxation
Developed in 1950s; most frequently used nonmedical
therapies for relief of anxiety & fears in children &
Very effective
Systematic Desensitization cont.

Step 1: Learning to relax on cue (for several
Step 2: Make an anxiety hierarchy; a list of items
that elicit anxiety
Imagining & relaxing; imagines least stressful
situation while in relaxed state &she continues
up the anxiety hierarchy
Three Kinds of Learning cont.
Operant conditioning: learning in which
consequences that follow some behavior
increase or decrease the likelihood of that
behavior’s occurrence in the future.
◼ Discovered by E.L. Thorndike
◼ B.F.Skinner further developed & expanded the
study of operant learning
History of Operant Conditioning

E.L Thorndike conducted an experiment with a
series of puzzle boxes from which a cat could
escape & receive a reward by learning a specific
He formulated the law of effect: behaviors
followed by positive consequences are
strengthened, while behaviors followed by
negative consequences are weakened
History of Operant Conditioning

Skinner devised the concept of operant response:
response that can be modified by its consequences & is
a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be
easily monitored.
Used Skinner box; box with a bar that when pressed,
releases food; used with rats
Shaping is also part of process. It is a procedure in
which an experimenter successively reinforces
behaviors that lead up to or approximate to the desired
Skinner stresses that the reinforcement should be
Examples of Operant Conditioning
Superstitious behavior: behavior that increases in
frequency because its occurrence is accidentally
paired with the delivery of the reinforcer
Toilet training
Food refusal

Determine target behavior
Use reinforcers

Reinforcement: a consequence that occurs after
a behavior & increases the chance that the
behavior will occur again
Punishment: consequence that occurs after a
behavior & decreases the chance that the
behavior will occur again
Pica example. Pica: behavioral disorder that
involves eating inedible objects or unhealthy

Positive reinforcement: the presentation of a
stimulus (positive reinforcer) that increases the
probability that a behavior will occur again
Negative reinforcement: an aversive (unpleasant)
stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood
that the preceding response will occur again;
example: taking an aspirin to get rid of a
Negative Reinforcers

Taking aspirin to relieve a headache
Hurrying home in winter to get out of cold
Fanning oneself to escape the heat
Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad
Faking a stomach ache to avoid school
Putting on a seatbelt to avoid the buzz
Saying “uncle” to stop being beaten
Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain

Primary reinforcer: stimulus that is immediately
satisfying & requires no learning on the part of
the subject to become pleasurable, such as food,
water, sex
Secondary reinforcer: stimulus that has acquired
its reinforcing power through experience;
learned, sometimes through pairing with primary
reinforcer or other secondary reinforcers, such
as grades & money

Positive punishment: presenting an unpleasant stimulus
after a response, such as spanking; decreases chances
that response will recur.
Negative punishment: removing a reinforcing stimulus
after a response, such as taking the allowance away;
decreases chances that response will recur.
BOTH stop or decrease the occurrence of a behavior
Self-injurious behavior: serious & sometimes lifethreatening physical damage a person inflicts on his or
her own body. Can use positive punishment to treat

Positive & negative punishment decrease the
likelihood of a behavior occurring again
Positive & negative reinforcement increase the
likelihood of a behavior occurring again
Schedules of Reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement: program or rule that
determines how & when the occurrence of a
response will be followed by a reinforcer.
Continuous reinforcement: every occurrence of
the operant response results in delivery of the
Partial reinforcement: situation in which
responding is only reinforced only some of the
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
Fixed-ratio: reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number
of responses are made by the subject; predetermined
set of responses; ratio (number or amount is fixed)
Ex: Car wash employee receives $10 for every 3 cars
◼ Fixed-interval: reinforcer occurs following the first
response that occurs after a fixed interval of time; the
interval (time) is fixed
Ex: Monthly paycheck

Partial Reinforcement Schedules
Variable-ratio: reinforcer is delivered after an
average number of correct responses has
occurred; occurs unpredictably; ratio (number or
amount) varies
Ex: Slot machines
◼ Variable-interval: reinforcer occurs following the
first correct response after an average amount
of time passed; unpredictable; interval (time)
Ex: Study steadily because pop quiz is possible

Other Conditioning Concepts

Generalization: an animal or person emits the
same response to similar stimuli
Discrimination: a response is emitted in the
presence of a stimulus that is reinforced & not
in presence of unreinforced stimuli.
Discriminative stimulus: cue that a behavior will
be reinforced
Other Conditioning Concepts cont.
Extinction: reduction in an operant response
when it is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
◼ Spontaneous recovery: temporary recovery in
the rate of responding.
All four of these phenomena occur in both
operant & classical conditioning.

Three Kinds of Learning cont.
3. Cognitive learning: learning that involves mental processes
(attention & memory), may be learned through observation or
imitation & may not involve external rewards or require the
person to perform any observable behaviors.
◼ Major figure is Albert Bandura
◼ Roots date back to work of Wundt in late 1800s
◼ Theory died in 1950s, reborn in 1960s, became popular in 1990s
◼ Extremely useful in explaining animal & human behavior; vital to
development of cognitive neuroscience
Three Viewpoints of Cognitive

Against: B.F. Skinner: said psychology’s goal should be
to study primarily observable behaviors rather than
cognitive processes
In favor:
Edward Tolman: developed concept of the cognitive
map: mental representation in the brain of the layout
of an environment & its features; can complete tasks
without reinforcement
Albert Bandura: social cognitive learning: learning from
watching, imitating & modeling & does not require the
observer to perform any observable behavior or receive
any observable reward.
Observational Learning

Famous study: Bobo Doll Experiment
Preschool children involved in an art project witnessed an adult
kicking, hitting, and yelling at a large Bobo doll (in the same
room). Another group of children was not exposed to this.
Children were then put in room with toys including Bobo doll &
put through a mildly frustrating situation.

children who witnessed the attack on Bobo also kicked, hit & yelled at
The children who had not observed the attack did not hit or kick Bobo.
The point: these children learned to perform specific aggressive behavior
by simply watching a model perform these behaviors (no practice or
reinforcement needed). Also, some children did not exhibit aggressive
behavior after observing.
Learning Vs. Performance

Learning-performance distinction: learning may
occur but may not always be measured by, or
immediately evident in, performance.
Shown through another Bobo experiment.
Children watched movie in which an individual
hit & kicked Bobo; some did not imitate the
behavior until promised a reward for doing so.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory: emphasizes observation,
imitation & self-reward in the development and
learning of social skills, personal interactions & other
behaviors; it is not necessary to perform observable
behaviors or receive external rewards to learn.
Four processes involved:
1. attention-observer pays attention
◼ 2. memory-observer stores the information
◼ 3. imitation-use remembered information to model the
◼ 4. motivation-needs reason or incentive to imitate
Application: reduce fears

Insight Learning

Insight: mental process marked by the sudden &
expected solution to a problem, called “ah-ha”
Wolfgang Kohler coined the term after doing research
with a chimp; chimp had to figure out a strategy to
obtain a hanging banana
Example: A man walks into a bar & asks for a glass of
water. The bartender points a gun at the man. The man
says “Thank you,” & walks out. Use insight to help you
solve the problem.
Biological Factors in Learning

Biological factors: innate tendencies or predispositions
that may either facilitate or inhibit certain kinds of
learning; may serve adaptive functions.
Example: play behaviors may help animals or humans
learn to develop social relationships among peers
Imprinting: inherited tendencies or responses that are
displayed by newborn animals when they encounter
certain stimuli in their environment; are irreversible,
such as baby chicks who follow the first moving object
they see
Biological Factors in Learning cont.

Critical, or sensitive period: relatively brief time
during which learning is most likely to occur.
Preparedness also contributes to learning
Human infants’ brains are biologically prepared
to recognize & discriminate among sounds that
are essential for learning speech
Research Focus: Noncompliance

Noncompliance: child refusing to follow
directions, carry out a request, or obey a
command given by a parent or caregiver.
Time-out: negative punishment in which
reinforcing stimuli are removed after an
undesirable response; decreases chances that
undesired response will recur; considered
Application: Behavior Modification

Behavior modification: treatment or therapy that
changes or modifies problems or undesirable behaviors
by using principles of learning based on operant
conditioning & social cognitive learning.
Used to treat autism
Biofeedback: training procedure through which a
person is made aware of his or her physiological
responses; they later try to control them to decrease
psychosomatic problems.
Pros & Cons of Punishment

Spanking: positive punishment; presentation of an
aversive stimulus (pain)
-May cause the child to imitate aggressive behavior
-only points out what a child should not do
Should be given immediately after behavior, only be severe
enough to be effective, delivered consistently, reason for it
should be explained
■Time-Out: negative punishment: removal of a reinforcing
Should be used consistently & combined with teaching the child
alternative behaviors using positive reinforcers
Theories of Classical Conditioning

Stimulus Substitution: association forms between the
neutral stimulus & unconditioned stimulus

Contiguity theory: two stimuli (NS & UCS) are paired
together in time. (bell & food paired, bell becomes CS
& causes salivation)
Theories of Classical Conditioning

Cognitive perspective: one stimulus (NS)
predicts the other (UCS)
Widespread support for this theory

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