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I’m working on a management multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.


This


Assignment


is based on ‘



Lean Manufacturing System’



:


As we know that 5S

is a lean manufacturing approach to “A place for everything, and everything in its place” based on the Toyota Production System.

  • Sort
  • straighten
  • shine
  • standardize
  • sustain

To consider these five S, write an ‘

Article’

focusing on the following considerations.

  • Employee Morale 2 Marks
  • Safety 2 Marks
  • Efficiency 2 Marks
  • Reduces time for looking 2 Marks
  • Performance

    evaluation

    2 Marks

Chapter 7:
Lean Thinking and Lean Systems
McGraw-Hill Education
COPYRIGHT © 2022 BY THE MCGRAW-HILL COMPANIES, INC.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
1
Chapter 7 Learning Objectives
▪LO 7.1 Describe the origins and evolution of lean thinking.
▪LO 7.2 Describe the five tenets of lean thinking and the seven forms of waste
in a lean system.
▪LO 7.3 Explain why a stabilized master schedule is required for smooth flow.
▪LO 7.4 Explain how setup time, lot size, layout, and maintenance are related
to lean thinking.
▪LO 7.5 Differentiate how employees are unique in lean systems.
▪LO 7.6 Design a Kanban system to achieve customer pull.
▪LO 7.7 Compare lean suppliers to traditional manufacturing suppliers.
▪LO 7.8 Explain how to implement a lean system.
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
7-2
Evolution of Lean
Toyota Production System (TPS)
◦ Developed in Japan following WWII (due to limited resources)
◦ Also known as Just-in-Time (JIT) manufacturing
◦ Came to U.S. in 1981 at Kawasaki motorcycle plant in Lincoln, Nebraska
1990s book,
“The Machine That Changed the World”
by Womack, Jones & Roos
Popularized a new label:
Lean Production
Walter Cicchetti/123RF
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7-3
Lean Tenets
Create product/service value from customer perspective
◦ Reduce waste – muda
Identify, study, improve the value stream
◦ Observe the process – gemba
Ensure simple, smooth, error-free flow
◦ Determine takt time
Produce only what is pulled by customer
◦ Use kanbans
Strive for perfection
◦ Hold kaizen events, 5S, 5 Whys
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7-4
Create Value: Seven Forms of Waste
Overproduction: Producing more than the demand for customers, resulting in
unnecessary inventory, handling, paperwork, and warehouse space.
Waiting time: Operators and machines waiting for parts or work to arrive from
suppliers or other operations. Customers waiting in line.
Unnecessary transportation: Double or triple movement of materials due to
poor layouts, lack of coordination, and poor workplace organization.
Excess processing: Poor design or inadequate maintenance or processes,
requiring additional labor or machine time.
Too much inventory: Excess inventory due to large lot sizes, obsolete items,
poor forecasts, or improper production planning.
Unnecessary motion: Wasted movements of people or extra walking to get
materials.
Defects: Use of material, labor, and capacity for production of defects, sorting
out bad parts, or warranty costs with customers.
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7-5
Value Stream Mapping
▪ Value stream is all processing steps to complete
product/service
▪ Extension of process flowcharting
▪ Includes value-adding/non-value-adding activities
▪ Requires direct observation of process – gemba
▪ “Is this step or task necessary in creating value for
the customer?”
▪ Change and improve process
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7-6
Example: Value Stream Mapping
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7-7
Water Level
Ensure Flow:
Inventory Hides Problems (Figure 7.2)
Bad
design
Poor
quality
Lengthy
setups
Inefficient
layout
Machine
breakdown
Unreliable
supplier
Water level indicates level of inventory in the system
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7-8
Lower Inventory Level Exposes Problems
Water Level
Bad
design
Poor
quality
Lengthy
setups
Inefficient
layout
Machine
breakdown
Unreliable
supplier
Water level indicates level of inventory in the system
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
7-9
Water Level
Water Flows Smoothly…
Once Problems Resolved
Problems addressed/solved
Water level indicates level of inventory in the system
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7-10
Customer Pull:
Push versus Pull System (Figure 7.3)
▪ Downstream customer
signals need for good
or service.
▪ Signal is sent upstream
that production is
needed.
▪ No upstream process is
authorized to produce
until customer pulls,
thus minimizing
inventory in the system.
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
11
Strive for Perfection:
Quality in a Lean System
Quality is essential input
into lean system.
Defects are waste.
No inventory to cover
up mistakes.
System designed to
expose errors; correct
them at their source (so
not repeated in the future).
Continuous improvement
of the process.
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7-12
5 Whys Technique
Explores cause-and-effect relationships that underlie problems
(root causes)
Enables root causes to be identified/resolved
Example: Truck won’t start.






Why? Battery is dead.
Why? Alternator is not functioning.
Why? Alternator belt is broken.
Why? Truck was not maintained as recommended.
Why? Truck is old; no replacement parts available.
Solution? Find source for parts, or purchase new truck.
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7-13
5S Technique
Organize workspace to improve employee morale, safety, efficiency.
Reduces time looking for “things.”
• Seiri
• Seiton
• Seiso
• Seiketsu
• Shitsuke
to Sort (keep, toss)
to Straighten or set in order
to Shine, sweep, or clean
to Standardize
to Sustain (maintain)
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7-14
Example: 5S Technique
Storage of chemicals in production area
Before
• Quantities greater than needed
• Difficult to see what is missing
• Hard to find anything
After Source: The Lean & Chemicals Toolkit/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
• Appropriately sized quantities
• Quickly see what is missing
• Easy to find anything
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7-15
Creating Flow
✓ Stabilize master schedule
✓ Reduce setup times and lot sizes
✓ Change to cellular layout and preventative maintenance
✓ Cross-train and engage workers
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16
Stabilize the Master Schedule
❖ Production horizon set according to demand.
❖ Production schedule repeated each day.
❖ Uniform load: level work load across workers/machines.
❖ Takt time: match supply (production rate) to demand rate .
❖ Produce planned quantity each day, and no more.
❖ These concepts are desirable, but not essential, to a lean system.
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7-17
Reduce Setup Time and Lot Size
Reducing setup time…
◦ increases available capacity
◦ increases flexibility to meet schedule changes
◦ reduces inventory
Setup types
◦ Single (single digit minutes)
◦ One-touch (less then 1 min; 2-step process)
◦ Internal (while machine stopped)
◦ External (while machine operating)
Lot size reduction
◦ Goal: single unit production
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7-18
Cellular Layout (Figure 7.4)
• Inventory kept on
shop floor close to
where it is used.
• Eliminates wasted
transportation
moving materials.
• Work centers
organized into
group technology
layout – cellular
manufacturing.
• U-shape ensures
flow without
interruption.
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7-19
Engaging Workers
Multifunction, cross-trained workers
◦ Flexibility to move to busy work centers
New pay system to reflect skills variety
Workers contribute individually and collaboratively
◦ Perform own maintenance and inspection
◦ Teamwork, problem solving
◦ Suggestion systems
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7-20
Pull:
Kanban System
❖Signals the need for more parts
❖Uses simple cards or signals to control production and inventory
❖Each work center receives production order (signal or card)
from succeeding (downstream) work center
❖Prevents buildup of inventory
❖Reduces lead time
❖Same concept applies to receiving deliveries from suppliers
(supplier must wait for signal)
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7-21
Kanban System (Figure 7.5)
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7-22
Kanban System
Kanban: “marker” (card, sign, empty container)
Visual control system of cards and containers, or other signal.
Number of containers:
DT
n=
C
D = Demand rate (at work center)
T = Time for container to complete circuit
C = Container size (# units)
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7-23
Kanban Containers – Example
▪ Demand at work center B is 5 parts per minute and a
standard container holds 50 parts.
▪ It takes 90 minutes for a container to make a complete circuit
through work center A and work center B (and back to A),
including all setup, run, move, and wait times.
The number of containers needed:
n = 5(90) / 50 = 9 containers
The maximum inventory in the production system, a useful
measure of how lean the system is:
Maximum inventory = nC = DT = (9 × 50) = (5 × 90)
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24
Supplier Relationships
▪ Viewed as the ‘external factory’
▪ Co-location, frequent deliveries
▪ Fewer suppliers
▪ No inspection—high quality is assumed (required)
▪ Integrated supplier programs




Early supplier selection
Family-of-parts sourcing
Long-term strategic relationship
Reduce paperwork and inspection
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7-25
Implementation: Kaizen Event
✓Establish a cross-functional team
✓Determine what customers value
✓Construct value stream map
Eliminate waste (non-value-adding activities)
✓Create smooth and error-free flow
✓Use customer demand to pull work thru process
✓Implement team ideas
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7-26
Chapter 7 Summary
▪LO 7.1 Describe the origins and evolution of lean thinking.
▪LO 7.2 Describe the five tenets of lean thinking and the seven forms of waste
in a lean system.
▪LO 7.3 Explain why a stabilized master schedule is required for smooth flow.
▪LO 7.4 Explain how setup time, lot size, layout, and maintenance are related
to lean thinking.
▪LO 7.5 Differentiate how employees are unique in lean systems.
▪LO 7.6 Design a Kanban system to achieve customer pull.
▪LO 7.7 Compare lean suppliers to traditional manufacturing suppliers.
▪LO 7.8 Explain how to implement a lean system.
COPYRIGHT © 2022 BY THE MCGRAW-HILL COMPANIES, INC.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
7-27
Questions for Discussion
•Why did lean (Toyota Production System) work so well in Japan after
World War II?
•Choose one of the Japanese words from the 5 lean tenets and explain
it in your own words.
•Which of the 7 forms of waste can you observe at your favorite
restaurants?
•What does it mean to say that “inventory hides problems” in a
production system?
•Consider what “setup time” looks like in different industries:
hospitals, quick oil change shops, restaurants, garment producing
factories.
•Make a mental list of how you would “5S” your own refrigerator.
Then, share your ideas with classmates and compare how they
approached this task.
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
28

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