Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Acute Renal Failure Concept Map | excelpaper.org/
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

complete the concept map on acute renal failure using the case study in the book.

Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page iv
This page intentionally left blank.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page i
100 C ASE STU DI ES
I N PAT H O P H Y S I O L O G Y
H a r o l d J . B r u y e r e , J r. , P h . D .
P R O F E S SO R E M E R I T U S
U N I V E R S I T Y O F W YO M I N G
L A R A M I E , W YO M I N G
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page ii
Acquisitions Editor: David Troy
Managing Editor: Meredith L. Brittain
Marketing Manager: Allison M. Noplock
Associate Production Manager: Kevin P. Johnson
Designer: Teresa Mallon
Compositor: International Typesetting and Composition
Copyright © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business.
351 West Camden Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
530 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Printed in the United States of America
All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or
utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright
owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this
book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered
by the above-mentioned copyright. To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at
530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, via email at permissions@lww.com, or via website at lww.com
(products and services).
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bruyere, Harold Joseph, 1947100 case studies in pathophysiology / Harold J. Bruyere Jr.
p. ; cm.
ISBN 978-0-7817-6145-1
1. Physiology, Pathological—Case studies. I. Title. II. Title: One
hundred case studies in pathophysiology.
[DNLM: 1. Pathology—Case Reports. 2. Clinical Medicine—Case Reports.
3. Physiology—Case Reports. WB 293 B914z 2009]
RB113.B79 2009
616.07—dc22
2008014719
DISCLAIMER
Care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of the information present and to describe generally
accepted practices. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty,
expressed or implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication. Application of this information in a particular situation remains the professional responsibility of
the practitioner; the clinical treatments described and recommended may not be considered absolute and
universal recommendations.
The authors, editors, and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage
set forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow
of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert
for each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is
particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug.
Some drugs and medical devices presented in this publication have Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) clearance for limited use in restricted research settings. It is the responsibility of the health care
provider to ascertain the FDA status of each drug or device planned for use in their clinical practice.
To purchase additional copies of this book, call our customer service department at (800) 638-3030 or fax
orders to (301) 223-2320. International customers should call (301) 223-2300.
Visit Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the Internet: http://www.lww.com. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
customer service representatives are available from 8:30 am to 6:00 pm, EST.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page iii
Dedication
This case studies workbook is dedicated to my beloved wife, Kathy, my son,
Travis, and my daughter, Kimberly, who have been an inspiration to me
and whom I love very much.
Case Study 32 is dedicated to my friend, Merrill Buckley, who passed away on
July 6, 2007 after a long and courageous battle with chronic renal failure.
Case Study 45 is dedicated to my late friend, Eddie Alwin, who struggled
with Parkinson disease for many years.
Case Study 49 is dedicated to my father, who passed away in July 1993 after
a long and courageous battle with depression.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page iv
This page intentionally left blank.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page v
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Professor Bruyere has 30 years of experience teaching
students in human medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and
the allied health professions. He has been a member of
the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, the University
of Wyoming, and the University of Washington.
v
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page vi
This page intentionally left blank.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page vii
PREFACE
he primary purpose of 100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology is to provide students beginning their formal education in the health sciences with a resource
they can use to begin to develop their clinical problem-solving and critical
thinking skills. This workbook, which provides a strong link between theory
and practice, was designed for use by medical, pharmacy, nursing, and allied
health educators and their students. The basic concept that underlies this
workbook is that clinical manifestations of an illness are directly associated with the pathophysiology of human disease.
This workbook provides a straightforward approach to integrating basic pathophysiology,
risk factors, physical examination findings, and clinical laboratory data for 100 significant
health problems in the United States today. Some of the case studies were written from comprehensive interviews with patients, some are composites of case studies reported in the medical literature, and others are drawn from my personal experiences. Review summaries of
selected major health problems allow students to develop effective methods of clinical assessment and disease management. In addition, the principles and concepts of underlying disease
processes presented here will further prepare students for the study of basic pharmacology.
T
Goals of This Workbook
The three major goals of this workbook are:
• To provide a basic, straightforward, and current resource tool for medical, pharmacy,
nursing, and allied health students who have minimal experience interpreting a medical
case study or a patient’s medical record;
• To provide students in the health sciences with an opportunity to develop their clinical
problem-solving skills by identifying clinical manifestations, abnormal clinical laboratory
data, and risk factors for a variety of significant health disorders;
• To provide an opportunity for students in the health sciences to develop their clinical critical thinking skills by selecting appropriate disease management options through a case
study approach.
The Audience
This workbook is unique in that it was designed for students in human medicine, pharmacy,
nursing, and the allied health sciences to support early courses in basic pathophysiology or
general pathology. I made the assumption that students who would use this workbook had
not completed courses in pharmacology and were novices regarding drug treatment. I also
assumed that students would be learning for the first time how to problem solve and think
critically with a medical case study before them.
The use of case studies in this workbook does not require extensive knowledge and experience in human medicine, pharmacy, or nursing. Case studies are basic, concise, and introduce the student to new medical terms and medical abbreviations that are commonly used
by health professionals. Each patient case also incorporates important clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data that are consistent with a specific health problem. The student will
use tables of clinical laboratory reference values (e.g., normal white blood cell count, normal
serum sodium or potassium concentrations) to recognize data collected from case study
patients that are abnormal and suggestive of specific disease states.
The workbook can be used to complement a variety of basic pathophysiology or pathology textbooks. 100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology also can be used by itself as a concise and
effective review of concepts previously learned.
vii
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
viii
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page viii
P R E FA C E
Organizational Philosophy
This book uses the organ systems approach to categorize human diseases and other health conditions. This approach allows the instructor to cover conditions in a logical and efficient manner
(e.g., cardiovascular disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, or respiratory disorders). However,
instructors must ensure that an anatomic and physiologic review of the appropriate organ system has been completed before students begin each of the case studies. Success in working
through each case presentation presupposes fundamental knowledge of the normal anatomy and
physiology of the appropriate organ system. For example, a complete review of the anatomy and
physiology of the heart is essential before completing the case studies in Part 1, Cardiovascular
Disorders, such as “Acute Myocardial Infarction” and “Congestive Heart Failure.”
This workbook contains a wide range of pertinent clinical information so that students
may better interpret and assess each case study patient. Seven appendices are included for
patient assessment purposes:
• Appendix A: Table of Clinical Reference Values
• Appendix B: Table of Normal Height and Weight in Children
• Appendix C: Table of Blood Pressure in Children
• Appendix D: Table of Karnovsky Performance Status
• Appendix E: Table of Common Medical Abbreviations
• Appendix F: Table of APGAR Scoring for Newborns
• Appendix G: Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31)
Case Study Structure
The organization of 100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology provides health science instructors
and students with a logical and efficient method for integrating the pathophysiology of
health conditions with appropriate clinical information. Each case study is divided into a
Patient Case of a specific health condition and the supporting Disease Summary (found on
the accompanying CD-ROM).
Patient Cases
Patient Cases are found in the printed workbook. Although the structure of each case is similar, it is not identical. This variability is intentional so that students will understand that
patient medical records vary significantly by individual healthcare providers. The cases present detailed information that simulates real-life patients. I have included questions that
assess understanding in each Patient Case. The basic structure of the Patient Case in this
workbook includes the following components:
• Patient’s Chief Complaints
• History of Present Illness
• Past Medical History
• Family History
• Social History
• Medications
• Allergies
• Review of Systems
• Physical Examination Findings (including vital signs)
• Laboratory Blood Test Results
• Specialized Test Results (e.g., urinalysis, chest x-ray, or electrocardiogram)
Disease Summaries
There is one Disease Summary on the CD-ROM to accompany each Patient Case in the workbook. Questions within many of the Disease Summaries assess the student’s understanding
or require the student to conduct more extensive research of the medical literature. Boldface
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page ix
P R E FA C E
is used to draw students’ attention to especially important key concepts, and many key terms
are italicized and defined. Each Disease Summary is presented in the following order:
• Definition of the medical condition
• Prevalence of the medical condition in the United States with a focus on age, gender, and
racial/ethnic group predispositions
• Significance of the medical condition with emphasis on bothersome symptoms, mortality rates, and national economic implications
• Causes and Risk Factors of the medical condition
• Pathophysiology of the medical condition based on established research findings
• Diagnosis: (based on) Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Tests
• Appropriate Therapy with a focus on the primary goals of treatment and common nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and surgical approaches
• Serious Complications and Prognosis (i.e., the consequences of failure to treat the
condition appropriately)
Learning Objectives
The major objective of this case studies book is to provide a current and close correlation
between basic principles of human disease and clinical practice. It is important for students
to thoroughly understand the underlying pathophysiologic processes that are present in the
patients they will serve. Additionally, understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of
human disease ultimately promotes better decision-making efforts by healthcare providers
and a better quality of life for their patients.
By working through the case studies in this workbook, students will:
• Strengthen their vocabulary in human medicine, pharmacy, and nursing;
• Develop an ability to recognize clinical signs and symptoms that are consistent with a
large group of common human health conditions;
• Develop an ability to identify abnormal clinical laboratory test results that are consistent
with a variety of human health disorders;
• Develop clinical problem-solving and critical thinking skills;
• Gain insights for specific treatments and methods of clinical assessment.
Student and Instructor Resources
Student Resources
The CD-ROM included with this book and the Student Resource Center at http://thePoint.
lww.com/bruyere includes the following materials:
• The Disease Summary for each case study, including definition, prevalence, significance,
causes and risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and serious
complications and prognosis.
• An Image Bank that contains more than 150 color photographs and illustrations from the
text to enhance the student’s understanding of a wide range of medical conditions presented in the workbook. These figures will help students master the concepts and principles of pathophysiology. The tables from the book are also included.
Instructor Resources
We understand the demand on an instructor’s time, so to help make your job easier, you will
have access to Instructor Resources upon adoption of 100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology.
In addition to the student resources just listed, an Instructor’s Resource Center at
http://thePoint.lww.com/bruyere includes the following:
• Answers to the questions found in the Disease Summary and Patient Case sections of this
product
ix
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
x
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page x
P R E FA C E
Suggestions for Future Editions
I made every effort to ensure that all information presented in 100 Case Studies in
Pathophysiology is current and accurate. However, I encourage readers to contact me by
email at hbruyere@uwyo.edu with corrections and suggestions that will make the next edition of this workbook better than the first.
Acknowledgments
This workbook is a direct result of my 30-year career of teaching pathology and pathophysiology to students in human medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and the allied health sciences. The
workbook also is the product of an extensive medical literature search that spanned four
years, numerous drafts of the manuscript, and a rigorous review process. However, a workbook such as 100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology cannot be developed without the personal
contributions of numerous individuals. I am indebted to them all and pleased to have the
opportunity to provide some recognition to them.
Initially, I would like to extend my deepest appreciation to my beloved wife, Kathy, and
my amazing children, Travis and Kimberly, for their strong support, encouragement, and
understanding during this lengthy project.
Two professional colleagues to whom I owe so very much are Enid Gilbert-Barness, MD,
PhD (my major professor at the University of Wisconsin—Madison) and H. John Baldwin, PhD
(former Dean at the University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy). There is no one on this earth
who has taught me as much pathology and as much about effectively teaching pathology as Dr.
Gilbert-Barness. She has been a role model and friend whom I have respected and admired for
more than 35 years. Furthermore, this workbook would never have been contemplated had it
not been for the profound influence that Dr. Gilbert-Barness has had in my life.
Dr. H. John Baldwin recognized qualities and abilities in me that I apparently overlooked
in myself. He hired me for my first tenure-track faculty appointment at the University of
Wyoming in 1987. More importantly, he also provided me with strong leadership and support
that allowed me to develop as a teacher and researcher and be promoted to full professor in
1999. I will always be grateful for his contributions to the success of my career.
Four of my former colleagues and friends at the University of Wisconsin—Madison were
very instrumental in my decision to pursue a teaching and research career in pathology—
Chirane Viseskul, MD; Sunita Arya, MD; Ken Gilchrist, MD; and Tom Warner, MD. I will not
forget the encouragement and guidance that they afforded me during those early years of
my career.
I would also like to thank all of those individuals who, with openness and honesty, have
shared their medical histories with me during the last four years, but especially Mary Lee,
Kathy Bruyere, and the late Merrill Buckley.
100 Case Studies in Pathophysiology is also a reflection of the talents of all those who participated in the development and review processes. These include eight expert reviewers and
the staff at Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, coordinated by Meredith Brittain—my patient,
understanding, and competent managing editor.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge the numerous medical, pharmacy, nursing, and allied
health students at the University of Wisconsin—Madison and the University of Wyoming with
whom I have worked closely in the classroom during the past 30 years. They have made significant contributions with their insights, stories, and questions and have helped to ensure that
this case studies workbook was developed with both clarity and quality.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page xi
REVIEWERS
Yvonne Alles, MBA, RMT
Treena Lemay, BScN
Department Coordinator, Allied Health
School of Health Professions
Davenport University
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Professor, Health and Community
Studies
Algonquin College of Applied Arts
and Technology
Pembroke, Ontario, Canada
Kathy Bode, RN, MS
Professor, Division of Health
Flint Hills Technical College
Emporia, Kansas
Ruth Martin-Misener, MN, PhD
Coordinator, NP Programs
Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Dana Marie Grzybicki, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Informatics
and Pathology
College of Medicine
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
John P. McNamara, MS, DC
Associate Professor
Biomedical Sciences Department
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
A Carilion Clinic Affiliate
Roanoke, Virginia
Jeff Kushner, PhD
Associate Professor of ISAT
College of Integrated Science and Technology
James Madison University
Harrisonburg, Virginia
M. Margaret Rayman Stinner, RN, MS
Instructor
Mount Carmel College of Nursing
Columbus, Ohio
xi
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page xii
This page intentionally left blank.
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page xiii
CONTENTS
About the Author
Preface
Case Study 28 Ulcerative Colitis
Case Study 29 Viral Hepatitis
v
vii
Reviewers
xi
PART 4
PART 1 ■ CARDIOVASCULAR
DISORDERS 1
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta
Congestive Heart Failure
Deep Venous Thrombosis
Hypertension
Hypovolemic Shock
Infective Endocarditis
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Pulmonary Thromboembolism
Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic
Heart Disease
2
7
10
14
18
23
26
31
34
39
PART 2 ■ RESPIRATORY
DISORDERS 43
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
11
12
13
14
Asbestosis
Asthma
Bacterial Pneumonia
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease
Case Study 15 Cystic Fibrosis
Case Study 16 Lung Cancer
44
49
54
60
65
71
PART 3 ■ GASTROINTESTINAL
DISORDERS 77
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
128
133
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Acute Pancreatitis
Cirrhosis
Colorectal Cancer
Constipation
Crohn Disease
Diarrhea
Esophageal Varices
Gastric Cancer
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Nausea and Vomiting
Peptic Ulcer Disease
78
83
88
93
98
102
107
111
116
120
125
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
30
31
32
33
34
35

RENAL DISORDERS 139
Acute Renal Failure
Chronic Renal Failure
Dialysis and Renal Transplantation
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Urinary Stone Disease
Urinary Tract Infection
140
145
149
154
159
162
PART 5 ■ NEUROLOGICAL
DISORDERS 167
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Acute Pyogenic Meningitis
Acute Viral Encephalitis
Alzheimer Disease
Cluster Headache
Complex Partial Seizure
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure
Intracranial Neoplasm
Migraine Headache
Multiple Sclerosis
Parkinson Disease
168
172
177
182
187
192
197
203
206
211
PART 6 ■ PSYCHIATRIC
DISORDERS 217
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
46
47
48
49
50
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Schizophrenia
218
222
228
232
237
PART 7 ■ NEUROENDOCRINE
DISORDERS 243
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Addison Disease
Cushing Syndrome
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Hyperparathyroid Disease
Hyperprolactinemia
Hyperthyroid Disease
244
249
253
258
265
269
273
xiii
Bruyere_FM_i-xiv.qxd
xiv
5/6/08
12:44 PM
Page xiv
CONTENTS
Case Study 58 Hypoparathyroid Disease
Case Study 59 Hypothyroid Disease
278
282
Case Study 83 Malignant Melanoma
Case Study 84 Psoriasis
PART 8 ■ CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITY
DISORDERS 285
Case Study 60 Down Syndrome
Case Study 61 Klinefelter Syndrome
Case Study 62 Turner Syndrome
286
291
295
PART 9 ■ FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM DISORDERS 299
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
63
64
65
66
Cancer of the Female Breast
Cervicitis
Endometriosis
Menopause and Hormone
Replacement Therapy
Case Study 67 Ovarian Cancer
Case Study 68 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Case Study 69 Premenstrual Syndrome
PART 10 ■ MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM DISORDERS 333
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
70
71
72
73
74
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Erectile Dysfunction
Prostate Cancer
Prostatitis
Testicular Cancer
334
340
345
348
351
PART 11 ■ IMMUNOLOGIC
DISORDERS 355
Case Study 75 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Case Study 76 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Study
Study
Study
Study
77
78
79
80
Gout
Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
PART 13

356
362
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
85
86
87
88
89
90
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia
406
411
416
421
426
431
PART 15 ■ DISORDERS OF THE EYES,
EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT 437
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Study
Study
Study
Study
Study
91
92
93
94
95
Acute Otitis Media
Acute Streptococcal Pharyngitis
Allergic Rhinitis
Cataracts
Open-Angle Glaucoma
438
442
445
449
454
PART 16 ■ NUTRITIONAL
DISORDERS 457
Case Study 96 Anorexia Nervosa
Case Study 97 Bulimia Nervosa
Case Study 98 Obesity
Case Study 99 Genital Herpes
Case Study 100 Gonorrhea
PART 18
366
370
376
382
DISEASES OF THE SKIN 387
Case Study 81 Acne Vulgaris
Case Study 82 Basal Cell Carcinoma
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
458
464
469
PART 17 ■ SEXUALLY
TRANSMITTED DISEASES 473
PART 12 ■ MUSCULOSKELETAL
DISORDERS 365
Case
Case
Case
Case
PART 14 ■ DISEASES OF
THE BLOOD 405
300
305
310
313
318
322
327
396
400
388
392
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
D
E
F
G

474
479
APPENDICES 485
Table of Clinical Reference Values
Table of Normal Height and Weight in
Children Ages 1–18 Years
Table of Blood Pressure in Children by
Gender and Age
Table of Karnovsky Performance Status
Table of Common Medical Abbreviations
Table of APGAR Scoring for Newborns
Questionnaire of Quality of Life
in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31)
486
494
495
496
497
509
510
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
4/29/08
5:45 PM
Page 1
PART
1
C AR DIOVASCU L AR
DISORDERS
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
4/29/08
5:45 PM
Page 2
CAS E STU DY
1
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL
INFARCTION
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
Patient’s Chief Complaints
“I’m having pain in my chest and it goes up into my left shoulder and down the inside of my
left arm. I’m also having a hard time catching my breath and I feel somewhat sick to my
stomach.”
History of Present Illness
Mr. W.G. is a 53-year-old white man who began to experience chest discomfort while playing
tennis with a friend. At first he attributed his discomfort to the heat and having had a large
breakfast. Gradually, however, discomfort intensified to a crushing sensation in the sternal
area and the pain seemed to spread upward into his neck and lower jaw. The nature of the
pain did not seem to change with deep breathing. When Mr. G. complained of feeling nauseated and began rubbing his chest, his tennis partner was concerned that his friend was
having a heart attack and called 911 on his cell phone. The patient was transported to the
ED of the nearest hospital and arrived within 30 minutes of the onset of chest pain. En route
to the hospital, the patient was placed on nasal cannulae and an IV D5W was started. Mr. G.
received aspirin (325 mg po) and 2 mg/IV morphine. He is allergic to meperidine (rash). His
pain has eased slightly in the last 15 minutes but is still significant; was 9/10 in severity; now
7/10. In the ED, chest pain was not relieved by 3 SL NTG tablets. He denies chills.
Past Medical History
Ulcerative colitis ⫻ 22 years
HTN ⫻ 12 years (poorly controlled due to poor patient compliance)
Type 2 DM ⫻ 5 years
S/P AMI 5 years ago that was treated with cardiac catheterization and PTCA; chronic
stable angina for the past 4 years
• BPH ⫻ 2 years
• Hypertriglyceridemia
• Adenomatous colonic polyps




2
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
5/3/08
10:11 AM
Page 3
CASE STUDY 1

A C U T E M YO C A R D I A L I N FA R C T I O N
Family History




Father died from myocardial infarction at age 55, had DM
Mother died from breast cancer at age 79
Patient has one sister, age 52, who is alive and well and one brother, age 44, with HTN
Grandparents “may have had heart disease”
Social History






40 pack-year history of cigarette smoking
Married and lives with wife of 29 years
Has two grown children with no known medical problems
Full-time postal worker for 20 years, before that a baker for 8 years
Occasional alcohol use, average of 2 beers/week
Has never used street drugs
Review of Systems
Positive for some chest pain with physical activity “on and off for a month or so,” but the
pain always subsided with rest
Allergies
• Meperidine (rash)
• Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (bright red rash and fever)
Medications






Amlodipine 5 mg po Q AM
Glyburide 10 mg po Q AM, 5 mg po Q PM
EC ASA 325 mg po QD
Gemfibrozil 600 mg po BID
Sulfasalazine 1.5 g po BID
Terazosin 1 mg po HS
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
General Appearance
The patient is an alert and oriented white male who appears to be his stated age. He is anxious and appears to be in severe acute distress.
Vital Signs
See Patient Case Table 1.1
Patient Case Table 1.1 Vital Signs
BP
160/98 right arm sitting
RR
P
105 with occasional
premature beat
T
18
HT
5⬘101⁄2⬙
98.2°F
WT
184 lbs
3
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
4
PART 1

4/29/08
5:45 PM
Page 4
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Skin
Cool, diaphoretic, and pale without cyanosis
Neck
Supple without thyromegaly, adenopathy, bruits, or jugular venous distension
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat





Pupils equal at 3 mm, round, responsive to light and accommodation
Extra-ocular muscles intact
Fundi benign
Tympanic membranes intact
Pharynx clear
Chest and Lungs




No tenderness with palpation of chest wall
No dullness with percussion
Slight bibasilar inspiratory crackles with auscultation
No wheezes or friction rubs
Cardiac




Tachycardia with occasional premature beat
Normal S1 and S2
No S3, soft S4
No murmurs or rubs
Abdomen
• Soft and non-tender
• Negative for bruits and organomegaly
• Bowel sounds heard throughout
Musculoskeletal/Extremities





Normal range of motion throughout
Muscle strength on right 5/5 UE/LE; on left 4/5 UE, 5/5 LE
Pulses 2⫹
Distinct bruit over left femoral artery
No pedal edema
Neurological
• Cranial nerves II–XII intact
• Cognition, sensation, gait, and deep tendon reflexes within normal limits
• Negative for Babinski sign
Laboratory Blood Test Results (31⁄2 hours post-AMI)
See Patient Case Table 1.2
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
4/29/08
5:45 PM
Page 5
CASE STUDY 1

A C U T E M YO C A R D I A L I N FA R C T I O N
Patient Case Table 1.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
133 meq/L
Mg
1.9 mg/dL
CK-MB
K
4.3 meq/L
PO4
2.3 mg/dL
Troponin I
Cl
101 meq/L
Chol
213 mg/dL
Hb
HCO3
22 meq/L
Trig
174 mg/dL
Hct
BUN
14 mg/dL
LDL
143 mg/dL
WBC
Cr
0.9 mg/dL
HDL
34 mg/dL
Glu, fasting
264 mg/dL
CPK
99 IU/L
Plt
6.3 IU/L
0.3 ng/mL
13.9 g/dL
43%
4,900/mm3
267,000/mm3
HbA1c
8.7%
Arterial Blood Gases




pH 7.42
PaO2 90 mm
PaCO2 34 mm
SaO2 96.5%
Electrocardiogram
4 mm ST segment elevation in leads V2–V6
Chest X-Ray
Bilateral mild pulmonary edema (⬍10% of lung fields) without pleural disease or widening
of the mediastinum
Clinical Course
Patient history showed no contraindications to thrombolysis. The patient received IV
reteplase, IV heparin, metoprolol, and lisinopril. Approximately 90 minutes after initiation
of reteplase therapy, the patient’s chest pain and ST segment elevations had resolved and
both heart rate and blood pressure had normalized. The patient was stable until two days
after admission when he began to experience chest pain again. Emergency angiography
revealed a 95% obstruction in the left anterior descending coronary artery. No additional
myocardium was at risk—consistent with single-vessel coronary artery disease and completed
AMI. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the vessel was successfully performed, followed by placement of a coronary artery stent. After the stent was placed, the
patient received abciximab infusion. Ejection fraction by echocardiogram three days postAMI was 50% and the patient’s temperature was 99.5°F. The remainder of the patient’s
hospital stay was unremarkable. He was gradually ambulated, physical activity was slowly
increased, and he was discharged eight days post-AMI.
Patient Case Question 1. Cite six risk factors that predisposed this patient to acute
myocardial infarction.
Patient Case Question 2. In which Killip class is this patient’s acute myocardial
infarction?
Patient Case Question 3. For which condition is this patient taking amlodipine?
Patient Case Question 4. For which condition is this patient taking glyburide?
Patient Case Question 5. For which condition is this patient taking gemfibrozil?
Patient Case Question 6. For which condition is this patient taking sulfasalazine?
Patient Case Question 7. For which condition is this patient taking terazosin?
Patient Case Question 8. Are there any indications that this patient needed oxygen
supplementation during his hospital stay?
5
Bruyere_Case01-001-006.qxd
6
PART 1

4/29/08
5:45 PM
Page 6
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Patient Case Question 9. Cite four clinical signs that suggest that acute myocardial
infarction has occurred in the left ventricle and not in the right ventricle.
Patient Case Question 10. Which single laboratory test provides the clearest evidence
that the patient has suffered acute myocardial infarction?
Patient Case Question 11. Based on the patient’s laboratory tests, what type of treatment approach may be necessary to prevent another acute myocardial infarction?
Patient Case Question 12. What is suggested by the “distinct bruit over the left femoral
artery”?
Patient Case Question 13. What is the pathophysiologic mechanism for elevated
temperature that occurred several days after the onset of acute myocardial infarction?
Patient Case Question 14. Does this patient satisfy the clinical criteria for metabolic
syndrome?
Bruyere_Case02-007-009.qxd
4/29/08
5:46 PM
Page 7
CAS E STU DY
2
ANEURYSM OF THE ABDOMINAL
AORTA
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
History of Present Illness
J.A. is an 83-year-old male who presents to his PCP complaining of a “strange rhythmic, throbbing sensation in the middle of his abdomen.” He has sensed this feeling for the past three
days. For the past several weeks he has also experienced deep pain in his lower back that “feels
like it is boring into my spine.” He describes the pain as persistent but may be relieved by
changing position. “I think that I hurt my back lifting some firewood,” he explains. The
patient has never smoked.
Patient Case Question 1. Given the diagnosis, what is probably causing this patient’s
lower back pain?
Past Medical History






Triple coronary artery bypass surgery at age 73
History of cluster headache
History of PUD
History of OA
History of psoriasis
Recent history of hypercholesterolemia
Medications





Celecoxib 200 mg po QD
Aspirin 81 mg po QD
Clopidogrel 75 mg po QD
Simvastatin 20 mg po HS
Multivitamin tablet QD
7
Bruyere_Case02-007-009.qxd
8
PART 1

4/29/08
5:46 PM
Page 8
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Patient Case Question 2. For which health condition is the patient taking celecoxib, and
what is the basic pharmacologic mechanism of action for this medication?
Patient Case Question 3. For which health condition is the patient taking simvastatin,
and what is the basic pharmacologic mechanism of action for this medication?
Patient Case Question 4. For which health condition is the patient taking clopidogrel,
and what is the basic pharmacologic mechanism of action for this medication?
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
Auscultation of the abdomen revealed a significant bruit over the aorta. Palpation of the
abdomen revealed an abnormally wide pulsation of the abdominal aorta with some tenderness. When questioned, the patient denied nausea, vomiting, urinary problems, loss of
appetite, heart failure, drug allergies, and a history of family members who had been diagnosed with an aortic aneurysm.
Patient Case Question 5. What is a bruit?
The patient’s vital signs were as follows: BP 150/95; HR 83; RR 14; T 98.8°F; WT 158 lbs; HT 5⬘9⬙
Patient Case Question 6. Based on the patient’s vital signs, which type of medication is
indicated?
A CBC was ordered and the results of the CBC are shown in Patient Case Table 2.1
Patient Case Table 2.1 Complete Blood Count
Hb
13.9 g/dL
Hct
43%
WBC
5,100/mm3
RBC
6.0 million/mm3
315,000/mm3
Plt
ESR
6 mm/hr
WBC Differential
Neutrophils
59%
Lymphocytes
32%
Monocytes/Macrophages
5%
Eosinophils
3%
Basophils
1%
Patient Case Question 7. What important information can be gleaned from the patient’s
CBC?
Laboratory blood tests were ordered and the results are shown in Patient Case Table 2.2
Patient Case Table 2.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na⫹

145 meq/L
Glu, fasting
112 mg/dL
2.9 mg/dL
K
4.9 meq/L
Uric acid
Cl⫺
104 meq/L
BUN
Ca⫹2
8.7 mg/dL
Cr
Mg⫹2
2.3 mg/dL
Alk Phos
PO4⫺3
HCO3⫺
3.0 mg/dL
PSA
27 meq/L
Alb
9 mg/dL
0.7 mg/dL
79 IU/L
AST
ALT
15 IU/L
37 IU/L
Total bilirubin
1.0 mg/dL
Cholesterol
202 mg/dL
HDL
50 mg/dL
11.6 ng/mL
LDL
103 mg/dL
3.5 g/dL
Trig
119 mg/dL
Bruyere_Case02-007-009.qxd
4/29/08
5:46 PM
Page 9
CASE STUDY 2

A N E U R Y S M O F T H E A B D O M I N A L A O R TA
Patient Case Question 8. Which single abnormal laboratory value has to be of most
concern?
An abdominal x-ray was performed, a localized dilation of the abdominal aorta was visualized, and calcium deposits were seen within the aortic aneurysm.
Patient Case Question 9. What has caused the calcium deposits in the aorta?
Patient Case Question 10. What type of imaging test is now most appropriate in this
patient?
An abdominal aortic aneurysm of 6.5 cm in diameter was located at the level of the renal
arteries and extended downward into the iliac arteries.
Patient Case Question 11. Would a ”wait-and-see” approach be appropriate or should
surgery be advised for this patient?
Patient Case Question 12. Would surgical excision and graft placement or endovascular
stent placement be more appropriate treatment for this patient?
9
Bruyere_Case03_010-013.qxd
4/29/08
5:47 PM
Page 10
CAS E STU DY
3
CONGESTIVE HEART
FAILURE
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
History of Present Illness
H.J. presented to the ER late one evening complaining of a “racing heartbeat.” She is an overweight, 69-year-old white female, who has been experiencing increasing shortness of breath
during the past two months and marked swelling of the ankles and feet during the past three
weeks. She feels very weak and tired most of the time and has recently been waking up in
the middle of the night with severe breathing problems. She has been sleeping with several
pillows to keep herself propped up. Five years ago, she suffered a transmural (i.e., through
the entire thickness of the ventricular wall), anterior wall (i.e., left ventricle) myocardial
infarction. She received two-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery 41⁄2 years ago for obstructions in the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries. Her family history
is positive for atherosclerosis as her father died from a heart attack and her mother had several CVAs. She had been a three pack per day smoker for 30 years but quit smoking after her
heart attack. She uses alcohol infrequently. She has a nine-year history of hypercholesterolemia. She is allergic to nuts, shellfish, strawberries, and hydralazine. Her medical
history also includes diagnoses of osteoarthritis and gout. Her current medications include
celecoxib, allopurinol, atorvastatin, and daily aspirin and clopidogrel. The patient is admitted to the hospital for a thorough examination.
Patient Case Question 1. Based on the limited amount of information given above, do
you suspect that this patient has developed left-sided CHF, right-sided CHF, or total CHF?
Patient Case Question 2. How did you arrive at your answer to Question 1?
Patient Case Question 3. What is a likely cause for this patient’s heart failure?
Patient Case Question 4. From the information given above, identify three risk factors
that probably contributed to the patient’s heart attack five years ago.
Patient Case Question 5. Why is this patient taking allopurinol?
Patient Case Question 6. Why is this patient taking atorvastatin?
Patient Case Question 7. Why is this patient taking celecoxib?
Patient Case Question 8. Why is this patient taking aspirin and clopidogrel?
10
Bruyere_Case03_010-013.qxd
4/29/08
5:47 PM
Page 11
CASE STUDY 3

C O N G E S T I V E H E A R T FA I L U R E
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
Vital Signs
BP ⫽ 125/80 (left arm, sitting); P ⫽ 125 and regular; RR ⫽ 28 and labored; T ⫽ 98.5°F oral;
Weight ⫽ 215 lb; Height ⫽ 5⬘8⬙; patient is appropriately anxious
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat
• Funduscopic examination normal
• Pharynx and nares clear
• Tympanic membranes intact
Skin
• Pale with cool extremities
• Slightly diaphoretic
Neck




Neck supple with no bruits over carotid arteries
No thyromegaly or adenopathy
Positive JVD
Positive HJR
Patient Case Question 9. What can you say about this patient’s blood pressure?
Patient Case Question 10. Why might this patient be tachycardic?
Patient Case Question 11. Why might this patient be tachypneic?
Patient Case Question 12. Is this patient technically underweight, overweight, obese, or is
her weight healthy?
Patient Case Question 13. Explain the pathophysiology of the abnormal skin
manifestations.
Patient Case Question 14. Do abnormal findings in the neck (JVD and HJR) suggest left
heart failure, right heart failure, or total CHF?
Lungs
• Bibasilar rales with auscultation
• Percussion was resonant throughout
Heart
• PMI displaced laterally
• Normal S1 and S2 with distinct S3 at apex
• No friction rubs or murmurs
Abdomen
• Soft to palpation with no bruits or masses
• Significant hepatomegaly and tenderness observed with deep palpation
11
Bruyere_Case03_010-013.qxd
12
PART 1

4/29/08
5:47 PM
Page 12
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Extremities
• 2⫹ pitting edema in feet and ankles extending bilaterally to mid-calf region
• Cool, sweaty skin
• Radial, dorsal pedis and posterior tibial pulses present and moderate in intensity
Neurological




Alert and oriented ⫻ 3 (to place, person, and time)
Cranial and sensory nerves intact
DTRs 2⫹ and symmetric
Strength is 3/5 throughout
Chest X-Ray
• Prominent cardiomegaly
• Perihilar shadows consistent with pulmonary edema
ECG
• Sinus tachycardia with waveform abnormalities consistent with LVH
• Pronounced Q waves consistent with previous myocardial infarction
ECHO
Cardiomegaly with poor left ventricular wall movement
Radionuclide Imaging
EF ⫽ 39%
Patient Case Question 15. Which abnormal cardiac exam and chest x-ray findings closely
complement one another?
Patient Case Question 16. Which abnormal cardiac exam and ECG findings closely
complement one another?
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 3.1
Patient Case Table 3.1 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na⫹
153 meq/L
PaCO2
K⫹
3.2 meq/L
PaO2
65 mm Hg (room air)
BUN
50 mg/dL
WBC
5,100/mm3
53 mm Hg
Cr
2.3 mg/dL
Hct
41%
Glu, fasting
131 mg/dL
Hb
13.7 g/dL
Ca⫹2
9.3 mg/dL
Plt
220,000/mm3
1.9 mg/dL
Alb
⫹2
Mg
Alk phos
81 IU/L
TSH
AST
45 IU/L
T4
pH
7.35
3.5 g/dL
1.9 µU/mL
9.1 µg/dL
Bruyere_Case03_010-013.qxd
4/29/08
5:47 PM
Page 13
CASE STUDY 3

C O N G E S T I V E H E A R T FA I L U R E
Patient Case Question 17. What might the abnormal serum Na⫹ and K⫹ levels suggest?
Patient Case Question 18. Explain the abnormal BUN and serum Cr concentrations.
Patient Case Question 19. What might be causing the elevated serum glucose concentration?
Patient Case Question 20. Explain the abnormal serum AST level.
Patient Case Question 21. Explain the abnormal arterial blood gas findings.
Patient Case Question 22. Which of the hematologic findings, if any, are abnormal?
Patient Case Question 23. What do the TSH and T4 data suggest?
Patient Case Question 24. Identify four drugs that might be immediately helpful to this
patient.
Patient Case Question 25. Ejection fraction is an important cardiac function parameter
that is used to determine the contractile status of the heart and is measured with specialized testing procedures. If a patient has an SV ⫽ 100 and an EDV ⫽ 200, is EF abnormally
high, low, or normal?
Clinical Course
After administration of low doses of the diuretics hydrochlorothiazide (which blocks sodium
reabsorption) and triamterene (which reduces potassium excretion), the patient voided
4,500 mL clear, yellow urine during the first 24 hours and another 3,500 mL during the second day post-admission. Bibasilar “crackles” and dependent edema also subsided. The
patient lost three pounds in total body weight.
Vital signs were as follows: BP ⫽ 115/80 (right arm, sitting); P ⫽ 88 and regular; RR ⫽ 16
and unlabored; PaO2 (room air) ⫽ 90; PaCO2 ⫽ 44. H.J. was discharged on day 4 with prescription medicines and orders to pursue a follow-up with a cardiologist as soon as possible.
13
Bruyere_Case04_014-017.qxd
5/2/08
3:06 PM
Page 14
CAS E STU DY
4
DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
History of Present Illness
J.B. is an overweight, 58-year-old man who has had swelling in his left foot and ankle and
pain in his left calf for six days. The pain has been getting worse for the past 24 hours. The
patient ranks the pain as 8/10. He has made an appointment today with his PCP.
Past Medical History
• Previous episode of DVT at age 54; treated with warfarin for 1 year
• Diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2, 5 years ago
A preliminary diagnosis of DVT is made and the patient is admitted to the hospital for a thorough clinical workup.
Family History




Father died at age 63 from myocardial infarction
Mother alive at age 80 with diabetes mellitus type 2
Brother, age 56, alive and healthy
No family history of venous thromboembolic disease reported
Social History





14
Patient is single and lives alone
Works as dean of pharmacy school, 11 years
28 pack-year smoking history, currently smokes 1 pack per day
Drinks 3–4 beers/day during the week and a 6-pack/day on weekends
No history of illicit drug use
Bruyere_Case04_014-017.qxd
5/2/08
3:06 PM
Page 15
CASE STUDY 4

DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS
Medications
• Glyburide 5 mg po QD ⫻ 3 years
• Denies taking any over-the-counter or herbal products
Patient Case Question 1. For what condition is this patient taking glyburide?
Patient Case Question 2. What is the basic pharmacologic mechanism of action for
glyburide?
Allergies
• Penicillin causes a rash
• Cat dander causes watery eyes and sneezing
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
General
J.B. is a pleasant, overweight, white male in moderate acute distress from leg pain.
Vital Signs
BP ⫽ 130/80; P ⫽ 110; RR ⫽ 16; T ⫽ 99.8°F; Ht ⫽ 5⬘10⬙; Wt ⫽ 245 lb; SaO2 ⫽ 98% on
room air
Patient Case Question 3. Which two of J.B.’s vital signs are abnormal and why are these
abnormal vital signs consistent with a diagnosis of DVT?
Patient Case Question 4. Is J.B. considered underweight, overweight, or obese or is his
weight technically considered normal and healthy?
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat








Atraumatic
Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation
Extra-ocular movements intact
Fundi normal
Normal sclera
Ears and nose clear
Tympanic membranes intact
Oral mucous membranes pink and moist
Neck
• Supple
• No cervical adenopathy
• Thyroid non-palpable
15
Bruyere_Case04_014-017.qxd
16
PART 1

5/2/08
3:06 PM
Page 16
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
• No carotid bruits
• No jugular venous distension
Chest
• Bilateral wheezing
• No crackles
Heart




Regular rate and rhythm
Distinct S1 and S2
No S3 or S4
No murmurs, rubs, or gallops
Abdomen




Soft, non-tender, and non-distended
No masses, guarding, rebound, or rigidity
No organomegaly
Normal bowel sounds
Genitalia
• Normal penis and testes
Rectal
• No masses
• Heme-negative brown stool
Extremities




No clubbing or cyanosis
Left foot and ankle swollen
Left calf swollen to twice normal size
No tenderness, pain, swelling, or redness, right lower extremity
Neurological
• Alert and oriented ⫻ 3
• No neurologic deficits noted
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 4.1
Patient Case Table 4.1 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na⫹
145 meq/L
Cr
0.9 mg/dL
RBC
5.2 million/mm3
HDL
30 mg/dL
K⫹
4.9 meq/L
Glu, fasting
160 mg/dL
AST
17 IU/L
LDL
152 mg/dL
Cl⫺
ALT
8 IU/L
Trig
160 mg/dL
100 IU/L
ESR
23 mm/hr
112 meq/L
Hb
15.1 g/dL
HCO3–
23 meq/L
Hct
42%
Ca⫹2
9.7 mg/dL
WBC
BUN
10 mg/dL
Plt
12,200/mm3
270,000/mm3
Alk phos
PT
Cholesterol
12.9 sec
280 mg/dL
Bruyere_Case04_014-017.qxd
5/2/08
3:06 PM
Page 17
CASE STUDY 4

DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS
Specialized Serum Laboratory Testing
Homocys, 91 µmol/L
Hypercoagulability Profile





(⫺)
(⫺)
(⫹)
(⫺)
(⫺)
factor V Leiden mutation
prothrombin 20210A mutation
protein C deficiency
protein S deficiency
antithrombin III deficiency
Patient Case Question 5. Identify two risk factors for DVT from the laboratory data
directly above.
Patient Case Question 6. Identify two other abnormal laboratory findings consistent
with a diagnosis of DVT.
Patient Case Question 7. Identify three other abnormalities from the laboratory data
above that may be unrelated to DVT but nevertheless should be addressed by the patient’s
PCP.
Doppler Ultrasound
• Left lower extremity shows no flow of the left posterior tibial vein
• Normal flow demonstrated within the left common femoral and iliac veins
• Right lower extremity shows normal flow of the deep venous system from the level of the
common femoral to posterior tibial vein
Diagnosis
Deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial vein
Patient Case Question 8. Prior to warfarin therapy, list two drugs that may serve as
initial treatment for this patient.
Patient Case Question 9. For how long should this patient be treated with warfarin?
17
Bruyere_Case05_018-022.qxd
4/29/08
5:50 PM
Page 18
CAS E STU DY
5
HYPERTENSION
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
HPI
E.W. is a 40-year-old African American male, who has had difficulty controlling his HTN lately.
He is visiting his primary care provider for a thorough physical examination and to renew a
prescription to continue his blood pressure medication.
PMH




Chronic sinus infections
Hypertension for approximately 11 years
Pneumonia 6 years ago that resolved with antibiotic therapy
One major episode of major depressive illness caused by the suicide of his wife of 15 years,
5 years ago
• No surgeries
FH




Father died at age 49 from AMI; had HTN
Mother has DM and HTN
Brother died at age 20 from complications of CF
Two younger sisters are A&W
SH
The patient is a widower and lives alone. He has a 15-year-old son who lives with a maternal aunt. He has not spoken with his son for four years. The patient is an air traffic controller at the local airport. He smoked cigarettes for approximately 10 years but stopped
smoking when he was diagnosed with HTN. He drinks “several beers every evening to relax”
18
Bruyere_Case05_018-022.qxd
4/29/08
5:50 PM
Page 19
CASE STUDY 5

and does not pay particular attention to the sodium, fat, or carbohydrate content of the
foods that he eats. He admits to “salting almost everything he eats, sometimes even before
tasting it.” He denies ever having dieted. He takes an occasional walk but has no regular
daily exercise program.
Patient Case Question 1. Identify six risk factors for hypertension in this patient’s
history.
Meds
• Hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg po QD
• Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride 60 mg po q6h PRN
• Beclomethasone dipropionate 1 spray into each nostril q6h PRN
Patient Case Question 2. Why is the patient taking hydrochlorothiazide and what is the
primary pharmacologic mechanism of action of the drug?
Patient Case Question 3. Why is the patient taking pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and
what is the primary pharmacologic mechanism of action of the drug?
Patient Case Question 4. Why is the patient taking beclomethasone dipropionate and
what is the primary pharmacologic mechanism of action of the drug?
All
Rash with penicillin use
ROS
• States that his overall health has been fair to good during the past 12 months
• Weight has increased by approximately 20 pounds during the last year
• Denies chest pain, shortness of breath at rest, headaches, nocturia, nosebleeds, and
hemoptysis
• Reports some shortness of breath with activity, especially when climbing stairs, and that
breathing difficulties are getting worse
• Denies any nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or blood in the stool
• Self-treats occasional right knee pain with OTC extra-strength acetaminophen
• Denies any genitourinary symptoms
Patient Case Question 5. What is the most clinically significant information related to
HTN in this review of systems?
Physical Exam and Lab Tests
Gen
The patient is an obese black man in no apparent distress. He appears to be his stated age.
HYPERTENSION
19
Bruyere_Case05_018-022.qxd
20
PART 1

4/29/08
5:50 PM
Page 20
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Vital Signs
See Patient Case Table 5.1
Patient Case Table 5.1 Vital Signs
Average BP
155/96 mm Hg (sitting)
HR
73 and regular
RR
15 and unlabored
T
Ht
5⬘11⬙
Wt
221 lb
BMI
31.0
98.8°F
Patient Case Question 6. Identify the two most clinically significant vital signs relative
to this patient’s HTN.
HEENT







TMs intact and clear throughout
No nasal drainage
No exudates or erythema in oropharynx
PERRLA, pupil diameter 3.0 mm bilaterally
Sclera without icterus
EOMI
Funduscopy reveals mild arteriolar narrowing with no nicking, hemorrhages, exudates, or
papilledema
Patient Case Question 7. What is the significance of the HEENT examination?
Neck
• Supple without masses or bruits
• Thyroid normal
• (⫺) lymphadenopathy
Lungs
• Mild basilar crackles bilaterally
• No wheezes
Heart
• RRR
• Prominent S3 sound
• No murmurs or rubs
Patient Case Question 8. Which abnormalities in the heart and lung examinations may
be related and why might these clinical signs be related?
Bruyere_Case05_018-022.qxd
4/29/08
5:50 PM
Page 21
CASE STUDY 5
Abd




Soft and ND
NT with no guarding or rebound
No masses, bruits, or organomegaly
Normal BS
Rectal/GU
• Normal size prostate without nodules or asymmetry
• Heme (⫺) stool
• Normal penis and testes
Ext
• No CCE
• Limited ROM right knee
Neuro





No sensory or motor abnormalities
CNs II–XII intact
Negative Babinski
DTRs ⫽ 2⫹
Muscle tone ⫽ 5/5 throughout
Patient Case Question 9. Are there any abnormal neurologic findings and, if so, might
they be caused by HTN?
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 5.2
Patient Case Table 5.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
139 meq/L
RBC
5.9 million/mm3
Mg
2.4 mg/dL
K
3.9 meq/L
WBC
7,100/mm3
PO4
3.9 mg/dL
Cl
102 meq/L
AST
29 IU/L
Uric acid
7.3 mg/dL
27 meq/L
ALT
43 IU/L
Glu, fasting
110 mg/dL
275 mg/dL
HCO3
BUN
17 mg/dL
Alk phos
123 IU/L
T. cholesterol
Cr
1.0 mg/dL
GGT
119 IU/L
HDL
Hb
16.9 g/dL
Hct
48%
Plt
235,000/mm3
T. bilirubin
T. protein
Ca
31 mg/dL
0.9 mg/dL
LDL
179 mg/dL
6.0 g/dL
Trig
290 mg/dL
9.3 mg/dL
PSA
1.3 ng/mL
Patient Case Question 10. Why might this patient’s GGT be abnormal?
Patient Case Question 11. Identify three other clinically significant lab tests above.

HYPERTENSION
21
Bruyere_Case05_018-022.qxd
22
PART 1

4/29/08
5:50 PM
Page 22
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Urinalysis
See Patient Case Table 5.3
Patient Case Table 5.3 Urinalysis
Appearance
Clear and amber in color
Microalbuminuria
(⫹)
SG
1.017
RBC
0/hpf
pH
5.3
WBC
0/hpf
Protein
(⫺)
Bacteria
Patient Case Question 12. What is the clinical significance of the single abnormal
urinalysis finding?
ECG
Increased QRS voltage suggestive of LVH
ECHO
Moderate LVH with EF ⫽ 46%
Patient Case Question 13. What is the likely pathophysiologic mechanism for LVH
in this patient?
Patient Case Question 14. What does the patient’s EF suggest?
(⫺)
Bruyere_Case06_023-025.qxd
5/2/08
3:08 PM
Page 23
CAS E STU DY
6
HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
Ms. K.Z., a 22-year-old university coed, was rushed to the emergency room 35 minutes after
sustaining multiple stab wounds to the chest and abdomen by an unidentified assailant.
A witness had telephoned 911.
Paramedics arriving at the scene found the victim in severe acute distress. Vital signs
were obtained: HR 128 (baseline 80), BP 80/55 (baseline 115/80), RR 37 and labored. Chest
auscultation revealed decreased breath sounds in the right lung consistent with basilar
atelectasis (i.e., collapsed lung). Pupils were equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation. Her level of consciousness was reported as “awake, slightly confused, and complaining of severe chest and abdominal pain.” Pedal pulses were absent, radial pulses were
weak, and carotid pulses were palpable. The patient was immediately started on intravenous
lactated Ringer’s solution at a rate of 150 mL/hr.
Patient Case Question 1. With two words, identify the specific type of hypovolemic
shock in this patient.
An electrocardiogram monitor placed at the scene of the attack revealed that the patient
had developed sinus tachycardia. She was tachypneic, became short of breath with conversation, and reported that her heart was “pounding in her chest.” She appeared to be very
anxious and continued to complain of pain. Her skin and nail beds were pale but not cyanotic. Skin turgor was poor. Peripheral pulses were absent with the exception of a thready
brachial pulse. Capillary refill time was approximately 7–8 seconds. Doppler ultrasound had
been required to obtain an accurate BP reading. The patient’s skin was cool and clammy.
There was a significant amount of blood on her dress and on the pavement near where she
was lying.
Patient Case Question 2. Based on the patient’s clinical manifestations, approximately
how much of her total blood volume has been lost?
23
Bruyere_Case06_023-025.qxd
24
PART 1

5/2/08
3:08 PM
Page 24
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
During transport to the hospital, vital signs were reassessed: HR 138, BP 75/50, RR 38
with confusion. She was diagnosed with hypovolemic shock and IV fluids were doubled.
Blood samples were sent for typing and cross-matching and for both chemical and hematologic analysis.
Laboratory test results are shown in Patient Case Table 6.1
Patient Case Table 6.1 Laboratory Test Results
Hb
8 g/dL
Hct
25%
PaO2
53 mm Hg
pH
PaCO2
52 mm Hg
SaO2
7.31
84% on RA
Patient Case Question 3. How many units of whole blood are minimally required?
Patient Case Question 4. Is it necessary that sodium bicarbonate be administered to the
patient at this time?
Oxygen was started at 3 L/min by nasal cannula. Repeat arterial blood gases were: PaO2
82 mm Hg, PaCO2 38 mm Hg, pH 7.36, SaO2 95%.
Patient Case Question 5. Are arterial blood gas results improving or deteriorating?
ER physicians chose not to start a central venous line. An indwelling Foley catheter was
inserted with return of 180 mL of amber-colored urine. Urine output measured over the next
hour was 14 mL. Ms. Z’s condition improved after resuscitation with 1 L lactated Ringer’s
solution and two units packed red blood cells over the next hour.
Patient Case Question 6. Based on urine output rate, in which class of hypovolemic
shock can the patient be categorized at this time?
Laboratory blood test results are shown in Patient Case Table 6.2
Patient Case Table 6.2 Laboratory Test Results
Na
136 meq/L
BUN
37 mg/dL
PTT
K
3.5 meq/L
Cr
1.9 mg/dL
Ca
9.0 mg/dL
Cl
109 meq/L
Glu, random
157 mg/dL
Plt
178,000/mm3
HCO3
25 mg/dL
PT
12.1 sec
WBC
33 sec
6,300/mm3
Patient Case Question 7. Explain the pathophysiology of the abnormal BUN and Cr.
Patient Case Question 8. Does the patient have a blood clotting problem?
Patient Case Question 9. Explain the pathophysiology of the abnormal serum glucose
concentration.
Bruyere_Case06_023-025.qxd
5/2/08
3:08 PM
Page 25
CASE STUDY 6

HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK
The patient was taken to the operating room for surgical correction of lacerations to the
right lung, liver, and pancreas. There, she received an additional six units of type B+ blood.
Surgery was successful and the patient was admitted to the ICU for recovery with the following vital signs: HR 104, BP 106/70, RR 21, urinary output 29 mL/hr. A repeat BUN and
Cr revealed that these renal function parameters had returned to near-normal values
(23 mg/dL and 1.4 mg/dL, respectively).
Patient Case Question 10. Based on clinical signs after surgery, in which class of hypovolemic shock can the patient be categorized at this time?
25
Bruyere_Case07_026-030.qxd
4/29/08
5:51 PM
Page 26
CAS E STU DY
7
INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
HPI
Mr. H.Y. is a 63-year-old male, who presents to the ER with a two-day history of high-grade
fever with chills. “I don’t feel well and I think that I may have the flu,” he tells the ER nurse
and physician. He also complains of “some painful bumps on my fingers and toes that
came on last night.” He denies IVDA. When asked about recent medical or dental procedures, he responded: “I had an infected tooth removed about two weeks ago.” He does not
recall receiving any antibiotics either prior to or after the procedure.
Patient Case Question 1. Which type of infective endocarditis is suggested by the
patient’s clinical manifestations—acute or subacute?
PMH







Asthma since childhood
Rheumatic fever as a child ⫻ 2 with mitral valve replacement 2 years ago
HTN ⫻ 20 years
DM type 2, ⫻ 9 years
COPD ⫻ 4 years
H/O tobacco abuse
Alcoholic liver disease
Patient Case Question 2. Which three of the illnesses in this patient’s medical history
may be contributing to the onset of infective endocarditis and why are these diseases
considered risk factors?
26
Bruyere_Case07_026-030.qxd
4/29/08
5:51 PM
Page 27
CASE STUDY 7

INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
FH
• Mother died from CVA at age 59; also had ovarian cancer
• Father had H/O alcohol abuse; suffered AMI at age 54; DM type 2; died in his 60s from
pancreatic cancer that “spread to his bones”
SH





Married for 43 years, recently widowed and lives alone
Father of 4 and grandfather of 10
One son lives in same city, but his other children live in other states
Insurance salesman who retired last year
Monthly income is derived from social security, retirement account, and a small life insurance benefit following his wife’s death (breast cancer)
• Manages his own medications, has no health insurance, and pays for his medications
himself
• 45 pack-year smoking history, but quit when he was diagnosed with emphysema
• Has a history of alcohol abuse, but quit drinking 4 years ago; continues to attend AA meetings regularly and is active in his church as an usher and Prayer Warrior
ROS
• Patient denies any pain other than the lesions on his fingers and toes
• Denies cough, chest pain, breathing problems, palmar or plantar rashes, and vision
problems
• (⫹) for mild malaise and some loss of appetite
Patient Case Question 3. What is the significance of the absence of breathing problems,
chest pain, rashes, and visual problems?
Meds






Theophylline 100 mg po BID
Albuterol MDI 2 puffs QID PRN
Atrovent MDI 2 puffs BID
Nadolol 40 mg po QD
Furosemide 20 mg po QD
Metformin 850 mg po BID
Patient Case Question 4. For which two disease states might the patient be taking theophylline?
Patient Case Question 5. Which medication or medications is the patient taking for
diabetes?
Patient Case Question 6. Which medication or medications is the patient taking for
high blood pressure?
27
Bruyere_Case07_026-030.qxd
28
PART 1

4/29/08
5:51 PM
Page 28
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
All
Penicillin (rash, shortness of breath, significant swelling “all over”)
Patient Case Question 7. Why are the clinical manifestations of the penicillin allergy so
significant?
PE and Lab Tests
Gen
The patient is a significantly overweight, elderly male in moderate acute distress. His skin is
pale and he is slightly diaphoretic. He is shivering noticeably.
Vital Signs
See Patient Case Table 7.1
Patient Case Table 7.1 Vital Signs
BP
P
150/92
118
RR
23 and unlabored
Ht
5⬘10⬙
102.5°F
Wt
252 lb
T
Patient Case Question 8. Is this patient technically considered overweight or obese?
Skin/Nails





Very warm and clammy
No rashes
No petechiae or splinter hemorrhages in nail beds
Multiple tattoos
No “track” marks
Patient Case Question 9. What is the significance of the absence of “track” marks?
HEENT








Anicteric sclera
PERRLA
EOMI
Conjunctiva WNL
No retinal exudates
TMs intact
Nares clear
Oropharynx benign and without obvious lesions
Bruyere_Case07_026-030.qxd
4/29/08
5:51 PM
Page 29
CASE STUDY 7

INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
• Mucous membranes moist
• Poor dentition
Neck
• Supple
• (⫺) for lymphadenopathy, JVD, and thyromegaly
Heart
• Tachycardia with regular rhythm
• Normal S1 and S2
• Diastolic murmur along the left sternal border (not previously documented in his medical
records), suggestive of aortic regurgitation
Patient Case Question 10. What is the most significant and relevant clinical finding in
the physical examination so far and what is the pathophysiology that explains this clinical sign?
Chest




CTA throughout
Equal air entry bilaterally
No wheezing or crackles
Chest is resonant on percussion
Abd
• Soft and non-tender
• (⫹) bowel sounds
• No organomegaly
Genit/Rect
Deferred
Ext
• No CCE
• Reflexes bilaterally 5/5 in all extremities
• Small, tender nodules that range in color from red to purple in the pulp spaces of the
terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes (“Osler nodes”)
Neuro
• No focal deficits noted
• A&O⫻3
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 7.2
29
Bruyere_Case07_026-030.qxd
30
PART 1

4/29/08
5:51 PM
Page 30
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Patient Case Table 7.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
135 meq/L
Glu, random
K
3.7 meq/L
Hb
Cl
100 meq/L
Hct
HCO3
22 meq/L
Plt
BUN
17 mg/dL
WBC
Cr
1.0 mg/dL
Neutros
145 mg/dL
14.1 g/dL
40%
213,000/mm3
19,500/mm3
80%
Bands
Lymphs
Monos
Alb
7%
12%
1%
4.0 g/dL
ESR
30 mm/hr
Ca
8.9 mg/dL
Patient Case Question 11. Identify five elevated laboratory test results that are consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis.
Patient Case Question 12. Explain the pathophysiology for any three of the five elevated
laboratory results identified in Question 11 above.
Patient Case Question 13. Identify two subnormal laboratory results that are consistent
with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis.
Urinalysis
The urine was pale yellow, clear, and negative for proteinuria and hematuria. A urine toxicology screen was also negative.
Patient Case Question 14. Explain the pathophysiology of proteinuria and hematuria in
a patient with infective endocarditis.
ECG
Normal
Transthoracic ECHO
A 3-cm vegetation on the aortic valve was observed. No signs of ventricular hypertrophy or
dilation were seen.
Blood Cultures
3 of 3 sets (⫹) for Streptococcus viridans (collection times 1030 Tuesday, 1230 Tuesday, 1345
Tuesday)
Patient Case Question 15. What are the six diagnostic Modified Duke University criteria
that favor a diagnosis of infective endocarditis in this patient?
Patient Case Question 16. What is the appropriate pharmacologic treatment for this
patient?
Bruyere_Case08_031-033.qxd
4/29/08
5:28 PM
Page 31
CAS E STU DY
8
PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
History of Present Illness
Mrs. R.B. is a 52-year-old woman with a 40-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although
she has been dependent on insulin since age 12, she has enjoyed relatively good health. She
has been very careful about her diet, exercises daily, sees her primary care provider regularly
for checkups, and is very conscientious about monitoring her blood glucose levels and selfadministration of insulin. She is slightly overweight and was diagnosed with hypertension
four years ago. Her high blood pressure has been well controlled with a thiazide diuretic. She
does not smoke and rarely drinks alcoholic beverages.
Mrs. B. was planning to shop at the local supermarket on Saturday, but her son telephoned her at the last minute and apologized that he had to work and could not drive her.
Since she had only a few necessary items to pick up, she decided to walk the five blocks to
the store. Rather than wear her usual walking shoes, she wore a pair of more fashionable
shoes. Upon her return home, Mrs. B. removed her shoes and noticed a small blister on
the ball of her right foot. She felt no discomfort from the blister. However, two days later,
she was alarmed when she found that the blister had developed into a large, open wound
that was blue-black in color. For the next two days, she carefully cleansed the wound and
covered it with sterile gauze each time. The wound did not heal and, in fact, became progressively worse and painful. Her son urged her to seek medical attention, and five days
after the initial injury she made an appointment with her primary care provider.
Patient Case Question 1. Identify this patient’s two most critical risk factors for peripheral arterial disease.
Current Status
Mrs. B.’s foot wound is approximately 1 inch in diameter and contains a significant amount
of necrotic tissue and exudate. Furthermore, there is a lack of pink granulation tissue—an
indication that the wound is not healing. The patient has a history of bilateral intermittent
31
Bruyere_Case08_031-033.qxd
32
PART 1

5/3/08
10:14 AM
Page 32
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
claudication, but denies pain at rest and recent numbness, tingling, burning sensations, and
pain in her buttocks, thighs, calves, or feet. Examination of the peripheral pulses revealed
normal bilateral femoral and popliteal pulses. However, the right dorsalis pedis artery
and right posterior tibial artery pulses were not palpable. The patient has no history of coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease.
Patient Case Question 2. What level of peripheral arterial disease is suggested by her
pulse examination: iliac disease, femoral disease, superficial femoral artery disease, or
tibial disease?
Patient Case Question 3. Briefly describe the locations of the dorsalis pedis artery and
posterior tibial artery pulses.
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
A pallor test revealed level 3 pallor in the right lower leg and foot and level 1 pallor in the left
lower extremity. Ankle-brachial tests were conducted.
Left brachial systolic pressure: 130 mm
Left ankle systolic pressure: 110 mm
Right brachial systolic pressure: 125 mm
Right ankle systolic pressure: 75 mm
Patient Case Question 4. What conclusions can be drawn from the pallor and anklebrachial test results?
A careful physical examination of the patient’s feet and legs revealed that both feet were
cool to the touch and the toes on her right foot were slightly cyanotic. However, there was
no mottling of the skin and sensory, reflex, and motor functions of both legs were intact. Her
vital signs are shown in Patient Case Table 8.1.
Patient Case Table 8.1 Vital Signs
BP
P
130/90 sitting
95 and regular
RR
T
18
Ht
62⬙
99.8°F
Wt
145 lb
Patient Case Question 5. Why is it likely that the patient’s body temperature is
elevated?
A sample of the patient’s blood was drawn and submitted for analysis.
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 8.2
Bruyere_Case08_031-033.qxd
4/29/08
5:28 PM
Page 33
CASE STUDY 8

PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE
Patient Case Table 8.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Hb
15.1 g/dL
Hct
41%
Monocytes
3%
ESR
Eosinophils
1%
BUN
20 mm/hr
10 mg/dL
139 meq/L
Creatinine
0.7 mg/dL
318,000/mm3
Na
11,900/mm3
K
4.3 meq/L
T cholesterol
291 mg/dL
Neutrophils
80%
Cl
108 meq/L
LDL
162 mg/dL
Lymphocytes
16%
Glu, fasting
210 mg/dL
HDL
26 mg/dL
Plt
WBC
Patient Case Question 6. What major conclusions can be drawn from the patient’s blood
work?
Patient Case Question 7. Does Mrs. B. have any signs of renal insufficiency, a common
chronic complication of diabetes mellitus?
Clinical Course
The patient was hospitalized and both wound and blood cultures were started. Mrs. B. was
treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics while waiting for culture reports. The wound was
packed with saline-soaked Kerlix gauze to facilitate debridement of necrotic tissue. The
patient was provided continuous insulin by IV with frequent monitoring of blood glucose
concentrations. Serum glucose levels were maintained at 80–100 mg/dL. An electrocardiogram was normal. Wound and blood culture reports were eventually completed. The wound
was contaminated with gram-positive bacteria, but the blood culture was negative.
Magnetic resonance angiography of the right lower extremity was subsequently performed and a right tibial artery obstruction was identified. The section of diseased vessel was
short (3.0 cm), but there was 70% narrowing of the artery. The angiogram also showed some
degree of collateral circulation around the obstructing lesion. The patient underwent successful percutaneous angioplasty of the diseased vessel and placement of a stent to restore
blood flow. The foot wound showed significant signs of healing after several days of bedrest
and continued antibiotic therapy. A decision to perform an amputation of the right foot was
averted.
Patient Case Question 8. Based on the information provided in the patient’s clinical
workup, what type of medication is ultimately necessary?
Patient Case Question 9. Why is it unlikely that a thrombus or embolus contributed
to arterial obstruction in this case?
Patient Case Question 10. What is “Legs for Life”?
33
Bruyere_Case09_034-038.qxd
5/2/08
3:09 PM
Page 34
CAS E STU DY
9
PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
Patient’s Chief Complaints
“I have severe chest pain and I can’t seem to catch my breath. I think that I may be having a
heart attack.”
History of Present Illness
Mrs. V.A. is a 30-year-old woman who presents to the hospital emergency room following 90
minutes of chest pain. She describes the severity of her pain as 8 on a scale of 10. An hourand-a-half ago, she developed sharp and constant right-sided chest pain and right-sided midback pain. The pain became worse when she attempted to lie down or take a deep breath and
improved a little when she sat down. She also has had difficulty breathing. She denies any
fever, chills, or coughing up blood. She reports that she just returned home 36 hours ago following a 13-hour flight from Tokyo.
Patient Case Question 1. What clinical manifestations, if any, suggest a pulmonary
embolus in this patient?
Past Medical History





Migraines with aura since age 23
Mild endometriosis ⫻ 5 years
Positive for Protein S deficiency
One episode of deep vein thrombosis 2 years ago; treated with warfarin for 1 year
Acute sinusitis 1 year ago
Past Surgical History
• Orthopedic surgery for leg trauma at age 7
• Ovarian cyst removed 10 months ago
34
Bruyere_Case09_034-038.qxd
5/2/08
3:09 PM
Page 35
CASE STUDY 9

PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM
Family History




Father has hypertension
Mother died from metastatic cervical cancer at age 49
Brother is alive and well
No family history of venous thromboembolic disease
Social History






Patient lives with her husband and 8-year-old daughter
Monogamous relationship with her husband of 10 years; sexually active
12 pack-year smoking history; currently smokes 1 pack per day
Business executive with active travel schedule
Negative for alcohol use or intravenous drug abuse
Occasional caffeine intake
Medications







30 ␮g ethinyl estradiol with 0.3 mg norgestrel ⫻ 4 years
Amitriptyline 50 mg po Q HS
Cafergot 2 tablets po at onset of migraine, then 1 tablet po every 30 minutes PRN
Metoclopramide 10 mg po PRN
Ibuprofen 200 mg po PRN for cramps
Multiple vitamin 1 tablet po QD
Denies taking any herbal products
Patient Case Question 2. Identify five major risk factors of this patient for pulmonary
thromboembolism.
Patient Case Question 3. Why do you think this patient is taking amitriptyline at bedtime every evening?
Patient Case Question 4. Why is this patient taking metoclopramide as needed?
Patient Case Question 5. What condition is causing cramps in this patient for which she
requires ibuprofen?
Review of Systems






(–) cough or hemoptysis
(–) headache or blurred vision
(–) auditory complaints
(–) lightheadedness
(–) extremity or neurologic complaints
All other systems are negative
Allergies
• Demerol (“makes me goofy”)
• Sulfa-containing products (widespread measles-like, pruritic rash)
35
Bruyere_Case09_034-038.qxd
36
PART 1

5/2/08
3:09 PM
Page 36
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
General
The patient is a well-developed white woman who appears slightly anxious, but otherwise is
in no apparent distress.
Vital Signs
See Patient Case Table 9.1
Patient Case Table 9.1 Vital Signs
BP
P
126/75
105, regular
RR
40, labored
WT
139 lb
98.6°F
HT
5⬘5⬙
T
O2 SAT
99% on
room air
Patient Case Question 6. Are any of the patient’s vital signs consistent with pulmonary
thromboembolism?
Patient Case Question 7. Is this patient technically considered underweight, overweight,
or obese or is this patient’s weight considered normal and healthy?
Skin
• Fair complexion
• Normal turgor
• No obvious lesions
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat






Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation
Extra-ocular muscles intact
Fundi are benign
Tympanic membranes clear throughout with no drainage
Nose and throat clear
Mucous membranes pink and moist
Neck
• Supple with no obvious nodes or carotid bruits
• Normal thyroid
• Negative for jugular vein distension
Patient Case Question 8. If the clinician had observed significant jugular vein distension,
what is a reasonable explanation?
Cardiovascular
• Rapid but regular rate
• No murmurs, gallops, or rubs
Chest/Lungs
• No tenderness
• Subnormal diaphragmatic excursion
• No wheezing or crackles
Bruyere_Case09_034-038.qxd
5/2/08
3:09 PM
Page 37
CASE STUDY 9

PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM
Abdomen
• Soft with positive bowel sounds
• Non-tender and non-distended
• No hepatomegaly or splenomegaly
Breasts
Normal with no lumps
Genit/Rect
• No masses or discharge
• Normal anal sphincter tone
• Heme-negative stool
Musculoskeletal/Extremities





Prominent saphenous vein visible in left leg with multiple varicosities bilaterally
Peripheral pulses 1⫹ bilaterally
No cyanosis, clubbing, or edema
Strength 5/5 throughout
Both feet cool to touch
Neurological
• Alert and oriented to self, time, and place
• Cranial nerves II–XII intact
• Deep tendon patellar reflexes 2⫹
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 9.2
Patient Case Table 9.2 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
141 meq/L
HCO3
27 meq/L
Hb
11.9 g/dL
K
4.3 meq/L
BUN
17 mg/dL
Hct
34.8%
Cl
110 meq/L
Cr
1.1 mg/dL
Plt
306,000/mm
3
WBC
5,300/mm3
PTT
25.0 sec
PT
14.0 sec
Patient Case Question 9. Are any of the patient’s laboratory blood tests significantly
abnormal? Provide a reasonable explanation for each abnormal test.
Patient Case Question 10. What might the patient’s chest x-ray reveal?
Electrocardiography
Sinus tachycardia
Echocardiography
Ventricular wall movements within normal limits
Lower Extremity Venous Duplex Ultrasonography
Both right and left lower extremities show abnormalities of venous narrowing, prominent
collateral vessels, and incompressibility of the deep venous system in the popliteal veins.
These findings are consistent with bilateral DVT.
37
Bruyere_Case09_034-038.qxd
38
PART 1

5/2/08
3:09 PM
Page 38
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
V/Q Scan
Perfusion defect at right base. Some mismatch between perfusion abnormality and ventilation of right lung, suggesting an intermediate probability for pulmonary embolus.
Pulmonary Angiogram
Abrupt arterial cutoff in peripheral vessel in right base
Patient Case Question 11. Which single clinical finding provides the strongest evidence
for pulmonary embolus in this patient?
Patient Case Question 12. Which is a more appropriate duration of treatment with warfarin in this patient: 3 months, 6 months, or long-term anticoagulation?
Patient Case Question 13. Is the use of a thrombolytic agent in this patient advisable?
Patient Case Question 14. Would you suspect that this patient’s plasma D-dimer concentration is negative or elevated? Why?
Patient Case Question 15. Is massive pulmonary thromboembolism an appropriate diagnosis of this patient?
Patient Case Question 16. What is a likely cause of respiratory alkalosis in this patient?
Patient Case Question 17. Areas of ischemia in the lung from a pulmonary embolus usually
become hemorrhagic. The patient whose chest x-ray is shown in Patient Case Figure 9.1
presented with chest pain, hypoxia, and lower limb deep vein thrombosis. Where is the
hemorrhagic area—upper right lung, lower right lung, upper left lung, or lower left lung?
Patient Case Question 18. In terms of thrombus development, what is the fundamental
difference between heparin and alteplase?
PATIENT CASE FIGURE 9.1
Chest x-ray from patient who presented with chest pain, hypoxia, and lower limb
deep vein thrombosis. See Patient Case Question 17. (Reprinted with permission
from Kahn GP and JP Lynch. Pulmonary Disease Diagnosis and Therapy: A
Practical Approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1997.)
Bruyere_Case10_039-042.qxd
4/29/08
5:41 PM
Page 39
CAS E STU DY
10
RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC
HEART DISEASE
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
History of Present Illness
K.I. is a 14-year-old white female, who presents with her mother at the hospital emergency
room complaining of a “very sore throat, a rash all over, and chills.” She has had the sore
throat for two days, but the rash and chills have developed within the past 12 hours.
Past Medical History





Negative for surgeries and hospitalizations
Negative for serious injuries and bone fractures
Measles, age 3
Chickenpox, age 6
Strep pharyngitis and severe case of rheumatic fever (arthritis, carditis, chorea), age 8,
treated with ibuprofen and penicillin
• Has worn eyeglasses since age 12
Family History




Oldest of 6 siblings (3 sisters, 2 brothers)
Father co-owns and manages tile company with his brother
Mother is homemaker
Youngest sister also developed strep pharyngitis and rheumatic fever 6 years ago
Social History
• “A–B” student in 9th grade
• Would like to attend University of Wisconsin–Madison and major in computer science
• Enjoys reading, music, and using the internet
39
Bruyere_Case10_039-042.qxd
40
PART 1

4/29/08
5:41 PM
Page 40
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
• Very active in various school activities, including soccer, chorus, journal club, and speech
club
• Denies use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substances
• Denies sexual activity
Medications
No prescribed or over-the-counter medicines
Allergies
• No known drug allergies
• Hypersensitivity to poison ivy
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
General
The patient is a mildly nervous but cooperative, quiet, young, white female in no acute distress. Her face and hands are dirty and she is poorly dressed with regard to both clothing
size and style. She has a slim build. Has difficulty engaging in conversation. Slightly
guarded in responses and rarely makes eye contact. Answers all questions completely with
a low speaking voice. Some fidgeting. No other odd or inappropriate motor behavior
noted.
Vital Signs
BP 103/75 lying down, right arm; P 89; RR 16; T 101.8°F; Wt 108 lb; Ht 5⬘3⬙
Skin




Very warm and slightly diaphoretic
Widespread “scarlet” rash on arms, legs, chest, back, and abdomen
Mild acne on forehead
No bruises or other lesions
HEENT






Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
Extra-ocular muscles intact
Fundi were not examined
Tympanic membranes intact
Teeth show no signs of erosion
Throat shows erythema, tonsillar swelling/exudates/vesicles
Neck/Lymph Nodes





Neck supple
Moderate bilateral cervical adenopathy
Thyroid normal
No carotid bruits
No jugular vein distension
Bruyere_Case10_039-042.qxd
4/29/08
5:41 PM
Page 41
CASE STUDY 10

R H E U M AT I C F E V E R A N D R H E U M AT I C H E A R T D I S E A S E
Breasts
Normal without masses or tenderness
Heart




Regular rate and rhythm
No murmurs, rubs, or gallops
Normal S1 and S2
No S3 or S4
Lungs/Thorax
• Clear to auscultation
• No crackles or rales noted
• Patient denies any chest pain with deep breathing
Abdomen





Ticklish during exam
Soft, supple, not tender, not distended
No masses, guarding, rebound, or rigidity
No hepatosplenomegaly
Normal bowel sounds
Genitalia/Rectal
• Normal external female genitalia
• Stool heme-negative
Musculoskeletal/Extremities





No cyanosis, clubbing, or edema
Negative for joint pain
Normal range of motion throughout
Radial and pedal pulses 2⫹ bilaterally
Grip strength 5/5 throughout
Neurological




Alert and oriented ⫻ 3
Cranial nerves II → XII intact
Deep tendon reflexes 2⫹
No neurologic deficits noted
Electrocardiogram
Normal
Laboratory Blood Test Results
See Patient Case Table 10.1
41
Bruyere_Case10_039-042.qxd
42
PART 1

4/29/08
5:41 PM
Page 42
C A R D I OVA SC U L A R D I SO R D E R S
Patient Case Table 10.1 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
140 meq/L
Cl
106 meq/L
K
4.2 meq/L
WBC
16,500/mm3
Ca
9.5 mg/dL
RBC
5.3 million/mm3
Latex agglutination
for group A strep
CRP
(⫹)
19.5 mg/dL
Anti-streptolysin O
(⫹)
Patient Case Question 1. What is an appropriate diagnosis for this patient?
Patient Case Question 2. Identify eleven clinical manifestations that are consistent with
your diagnosis above.
Patient Case Question 3. Why can rheumatic fever be ruled out as a diagnosis?
Patient Case Question 4. Does this patient have any signs of rheumatic heart disease?
Patient Case Question 5. What type of regular monitoring is necessary for this patient
and why is this type of monitoring required?
Patient Case Question 6. Why is it expected that the patient’s CRP is abnormal?
Patient Case Question 7. What is the pathophysiologic mechanism for cervical adenopathy in this patient?
Patient Case Question 8. What is the pathophysiologic mechanism for leukocytosis in
this patient?
Patient Case Question 9. What is the drug of choice for this patient?
Patient Case Question 10. Identify three major risk factors for rheumatic fever in this
patient.
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 43
PART
2
R E S P I R ATO R Y
DISORDERS
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 44
CAS E STU DY
11
ASBESTOSIS
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
Patient’s Complaints and History
of Present Illness
Mr. R.I. is a 69-year-old man, who has been referred to the Pulmonary Disease Clinic by his
nurse practitioner. He presents with the following chief complaints: “difficulty catching my
breath and it is getting worse; a persistent, dry, and hacking cough; and a tight feeling in my
chest.” He is a retired construction contractor of 45 years, who primarily installed insulation
materials in high-rise apartment and office buildings. He has been retired for four years and
first began experiencing respiratory symptoms approximately six months ago. He has attributed those symptoms to “being a long-time smoker and it is finally catching up with me.”
Past Medical and Surgical History







Appendectomy at age 13
Osteoarthritis in left knee (high school football injury) ⫻ 30 years
Status post-cholecystectomy, 16 years ago
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, transurethral resection 7 years ago
Hypertension ⫻ 7 years
Hyperlipidemia ⫻ 4 years
Gastroesophageal reflux disease ⫻ 4 years
Family History
• Paternal history positive for coronary artery disease; father died at age 63 from “heart
problems”
• Maternal history positive for cerebrovascular disease; mother died at age 73 “following
several severe strokes”
• Brother died in a boating accident at age 17
• No other siblings
44
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 45
CASE STUDY 11
Social History
• Previously divorced twice, but currently happily married for 23 years with 3 grown children (ages 40, 45, and 49)
• Enjoys renovating old houses as a hobby and watching NASCAR racing and football on television
• Smokes 1 pack per day ⫻ 45 years
• Rarely exercises
• Drinks “an occasional beer with friends on weekends” but has a history of heavy alcohol
use
• Volunteers in the community at the food pantry and for Meals on Wheels
• No history of intravenous drug use
• May be unreliable in keeping follow-up appointments, supported by the remark “I don’t
like doctors”
Review of Systems








Denies rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation
Denies headache, chest pain, bleeding episodes, dizziness, and tinnitus
Denies loss of appetite and weight loss
Reports minor visual changes recently corrected with stronger prescription bifocal
glasses
Complains of generalized joint pain, but especially left knee pain
Has never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or any other pulmonary disorder
Denies paresthesias and muscle weakness
Negative for urinary frequency, dysuria, nocturia, hematuria, and erectile dysfunction
Medications





Acetaminophen 325 mg 2 tabs po Q 6H PRN
Ramipril 5 mg po BID
Atenolol 25 mg po QD
Pravastatin 20 mg po QD
Famotidine 20 mg po Q HS
Allergies
• Terazosin (“It makes me dizzy and I fell twice when I was taking it.”)
• Penicillin (rash)
Patient Case Question 1. For which specific condition is the patient likely taking . . .
a. acetaminophen?
b. ramipril?
c. atenolol?
d. pravastatin?
e. famotidine?

A S B E S TO S I S
45
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
46
PART 2

5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 46
R E S P I R AT O R Y D I S O R D E R S
Physical Examination and Laboratory Tests
General
The patient is a pleasant but nervous, elderly white gentleman. He appears pale but is in no
apparent distress. He looks his stated age, has a strong Italian accent, and appears to be
slightly overweight.
Vital Signs







Blood pressure (sitting, both arms) ⫽ average 131/75 mm Hg
Pulse ⫽ 69 beats per minute
Respiratory rate ⫽ 29 breaths per minute and slightly labored
Temperature ⫽ 98.6°F
Pulse oximetry ⫽ 95% on room air
Height ⫽ 5⬘9⬙
Weight ⫽ 179 lb
Patient Case Question 2. Does this patient have a healthy weight or is he technically
considered underweight, overweight, or obese?
Patient Case Question 3. Which, if any, of the vital signs above is/are consistent with a
diagnosis of asbestosis?
Skin




Pallor noted
No lesions or rashes
Warm and dry with satisfactory turgor
Nail beds are pale
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat











Extra-ocular muscles intact
Pupils equal at 3 mm with normal response to light
Funduscopy within normal limits (no hemorrhages or exudates)
No strabismus, nystagmus, or conjunctivitis
Sclera anicteric
Tympanic membranes within normal limits bilaterally
Nares patent
No sinus tenderness
Oral pharyngeal mucosa clear
Mucous membranes moist but pale
Good dentition
Patient Case Question 4. What is the significance of an absence of hemorrhages and
exudates on funduscopic examination?
Neck and Lymph Nodes
• Neck supple
• Negative for jugular venous distension and carotid bruits
• No lymphadenopathy or thyromegaly
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 47
CASE STUDY 11
Chest/Lungs




Breathing labored with tachypnea
Prominent end-inspiratory crackles in the posterior and lower lateral regions bilaterally
Subnormal chest expansion
Mild wheezing present
Heart




Regular rate and rhythm
Normal S1 and S2
Negative S3 and S4
No murmurs or rubs noted
Abdomen




Soft, non-tender to pressure, and non-distended
Normal bowel sounds
No masses or bruits
No hepatomegaly or splenomegaly
Genitalia/Rectum






Normal male genitalia, testes descended, circumcised
Prostate normal in size and without nodules
No masses or discharge
Negative for hernia
Normal anal sphincter tone
Guaiac-negative stool
Musculoskeletal/Extremities





No clubbing, cyanosis, or edema
Muscle strength 5/5 throughout
Peripheral pulses 2⫹ throughout
Decreased range of motion, left knee
No inguinal or axillary lymphadenopathy
Patient Case Question 5. What is the significance of the absence of jugular venous distension, hepato- and splenomegaly, extra cardiac sounds, and edema in this patient?
Neurological





Alert and oriented ⫻ 3
Cranial nerves II–XII intact
Sensory and proprioception intact
Normal gait
Deep tendon reflexes 2⫹ bilaterally
Laboratory Blood Test Results
Blood was drawn for a standard chemistry panel and arterial blood gases. The results are
shown in Patient Case Table 11.1.

A S B E S TO S I S
47
Bruyere_Case11_043-048.qxd
48
PART 2

5/2/08
5:14 PM
Page 48
R E S P I R AT O R Y D I S O R D E R S
Patient Case Table 11.1 Laboratory Blood Test Results
Na
142 meq/L
Cr
0.9 mg/dL
WBC
9,200/mm3
K
4.9 meq/L
Glu, fasting
97 mg/dL
Plt
430,000/mm3
Cl
105 meq/L
Ca
9.1 mg/dL
pH
7.35
HCO3
22 meq/L
Hb
15.9 g/dL
BUN
12 mg/dL
Hct
41%
PaO2
83 mm Hg
PaCO2
47 mm Hg
Patient Case Question 6. Is the patient hypoxemic or hypercapnic?
Patient Case Question 7. Is the patient acidotic or alkalotic?
Pulmonary Function Tests (Spirometry)





Vital capacity, 3200 cc
Inspiratory reserve volume, 1700 cc
Expiratory reserve volume, 1000 cc
Tidal volume, 500 cc
Total lung capacity, 4500 cc
Patient Case Question 8. Are the pulmonary function tests normal, consistent with
restrictive respiratory disease, or consistent with obstructive respiratory disease?
Patient Case Question 9. Should supplemental oxygen be immediately given to this
patient?
Chest X-Ray
A posteroanterior radiograph showed coarse linear opacities at the base of each lung (more
prominent on the left) that obscured the cardiac borders and diaphragm (shaggy heart border sign). These findings are consistent with asbestosis.
High-Resolution CT Scan
Thickened septal lines and small, rounded, subpleural, intralobular opacities in the lower
lung zone bilaterally suggest fibrosis. Ground-glass appearance involving air spaces in the
upper lung zone bilaterally suggests alveolitis. Small, calcified diaphragmatic pleural plaques
and mild “honeycomb” changes with cystic spaces less than 1 cm were seen bilaterally and
are consistent with asbestosis.
Patient Case Question 10. What is the drug of choice for treating patients at this intermediate stage of asbestosis?
Bruyere_Case12_049-053.qxd
5/2/08
3:17 PM
Page 49
CAS E STU DY
12
ASTHMA
For the Disease Summary for this case study,
see the CD-ROM.
PAT I E N T C A S E
Patient’s Chief Complaints
With breathlessness: “Cold getting to me. Peak flow is only 65%. Getting worse.”
History of Present Illness
D.R. is a 27 yo man, who presents to the nurse practitioner at the Family Care Clinic complaining of increasing SOB, wheezing, fatigue, cough, stuffy nose, watery eyes, and postnasal
drainage—all of which began four days ago. Three days ago, he began monitoring his peak
flow rates several times a day. His peak flow rates have ranged from 200 to 240 L/minute
(baseline, 340 L/minute) and often have been at the lower limit of that range in the morning.
Three days ago, he also began to self-treat with frequent albuterol nebulizer therapy. He
reports that usually his albuterol inhaler provides him with relief from his asthma symptoms, but this is no longer sufficient treatment for this asthmatic episode.
Past Medical History
• Born prematurely at 6 months’ gestation secondary to maternal intrauterine infection;
weight at birth was 2 lbs, 0 ounces; lowest weight following delivery was 1 lb, 9 ounces;
spent 21⁄2 months in neonatal ICU and was discharged from hospital 2 weeks before mother’s original due date
• Diagnosed with asthma at age 18 months
• Moderate persistent asthma since age 19
• Has been hospitalized 3 times (with 2 intubations) in the past 3 years for acute bronchospastic episodes and has reported to the emergency room twice in the past 12 months
• Perennial allergic rhinitis ⫻ 15 years
Family History
• Both parents living
• Mother 51 yo with H/O cervical cancer and partial hysterectomy
• Father 50 yo with H/O perennial allergic rhinitis and allergies to pets
49
Bruyere_Case12_049-053.qxd
50
PART 2

5/2/08
3:17 PM
Page 50
R E S P I R AT O R Y D I S O R D E R S
• No siblings
• Paternal grandmother, step-grandfather and maternal grandmother are chain smokers but
do not smoke around the patient
Social History
• No alcohol or tobacco use
• Married with two biological children and one stepson
• College graduate with degree in business, currently employed as a business development
consultant with private firm
• There are no pets in the home at this time
Review of Systems







Reports feeling unwell overall, “4/10”
Denies H/A and sinus facial pain
Eyes have been watery
Denies decreased hearing, ear pain, or tinnitus
Throat has been mildly sore
(⫹) SOB and productive cough with clear, yellow phlegm for 2 days
Denies diarrhea, N/V, increased frequency of urination, nocturia, dysuria, penile sores or
discharge, dizziness, syncope, confusion, myalgias, and depression
Medications
• Ipratropium bromide MDI 2 inhalations QID
• Triamcinolone MDI 2 inhalations QID
• Albuterol MDI 2 inhalations every 4–6 hours PRN
Allergies
• Grass, ragweed, and cats → sneezing and whee…
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

error: Content is protected !!