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IT for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Twelfth Edition

Turban, Pollard, Wood

Chapter 13

Systems Development and Project, Program

and Portfolio Management

Learning Objectives (1 of 5)

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Systems Development

Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects

Software Development Methodologies

Monitoring/ Controlling and Closing Projects

Project, Program and Portfolio Management

Systems Development

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All systems development projects are prompted by a business need.

Systems development is a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools to creating and maintaining IT architecture and software.

Business need is a gap between the current state of a business and its goals.

A business driver is a condition, process, resource, or rationale that is vital for an organization to thrive.

Business Drivers

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Typical business drivers for systems development include the following:

Globalization of the economy

E-commerce, mobile commerce

Security and privacy issues

Communication, collaboration, and partnerships

Knowledge management

Continuous improvement and total quality management

Business process redesign

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System Development Life Cycle

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a multiple stage approach used by IT professionals to develop high-quality information systems from planning and analysis through support and maintenance.

The SDLC provides a framework for a number of different systems development methodologies.

The activities performed during systems development vary depending on the size and complexity of the system.

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Stages of the SDLC

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Systems Planning

Systems Analysis

Systems Design

Implementation and Testing

Support and Maintenance

The SDLC is an iterative process, not a linear one.

Stage 1: Systems Planning

During Systems Planning:

Planning begins when a business need is identified.

Problem or desired change is described.

Planning stage objective is to determine feasibility of the request.

The deliverable from the planning stage is the Project Plan.

A feasibility study in this stage determines the probability of success of a proposed system and provides a rough assessment of its technical, economic, organizational, and behavioral feasibility.

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Feasibility Analyses

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Technical feasibility determines if the required technology, IT infrastructure, data structures, analytics, and resources can be developed and/or acquired to solve the business problem.

Economic feasibility determines if the project is an acceptable financial risk and if the company can afford the expense and time needed to complete the project.

Legal and organizational feasibility Are there legal, regulatory, or environmental reasons why the project cannot or should not be implemented?

Behavioral feasibility considers human issues.

Stage 2: Systems Analysis

During Systems Analysis:

User requirements are gathered to better understand the problem

Process models are created to determine the logical design of the system

The deliverable from the systems analysis stage is the Systems Proposal.

More time invested in analysis mean a greater probability of IS success.

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Stage 3: Systems Design

System developers utilize the design specifications to create the user interface and establish data requirements

Physical design of the system is designed by determining and acquiring the hardware and software needed to carry out the logical design of the system

User and system documentation are created

Management and user involvement are critical to ensure that business requirements are being met

The deliverable from the design stage is the System Design Specification

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Stage 4: Implementation and Testing

Implementation

Conversion of the old system to the new system

Plunge: cut off and migration at a specific time

Parallel: simultaneous transfer

Pilot: limited test of new, then roll out

Phased: specific components in stages

Testing

Testing verifies that apps, interfaces, data transfers, and so on, work correctly under all possible conditions.

Users are trained in the use of the new system.

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Stage 5: Support and Maintenance

Occurs once new system’s operations are stabilized.

Audits are performed to assess capabilities and determine operational correctness.

Maintenance must be kept up to date at all times.

Users kept up to date on latest modifications and procedures.

Systems development is a repetitive process as maintenance turns into the development of a new system.

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System Development: Questions

What are the five stages of the SDLC?

Name the deliverables from three of the five SDLC stages.

Explain the purpose of feasibility tests and why they are important in developing ISs.

Is the systems development process a linear or a cyclical process? Explain.

Name the four system conversion methods.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 5)

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Systems Development

Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects

Software Development Methodologies

Monitoring/ Controlling and Closing Projects

Project, Program and Portfolio Management

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Comparing Systems Development Methodologies

Software Development Methodologies: Waterfall

Waterfall Method

Sequential

Predictive

Inflexible

No going back

Recordkeeping essential

Small, short-term projects

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Software Development Methodologies: Object-Oriented

Object-Oriented (O-O) Analysis and Design

Iterative, Adaptive

Emphasizes modularity and reusability

Views a system as a collection of modular objects that encapsulate data and processes.

Objects = people, things, transactions and events

A use case has two parts: use-case diagram, which is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system; and a use-case description, which is a text-based description of the business event and how users will interact with the system to accomplish the task.

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Figure 13.3: An Object-Oriented Use Case Model has two parts, the use case diagram and the use case description. Here’s a simple example of an account holder interacting with a Banking ATM.

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Software Development Methodologies: Agile

Agile Methodology

Most flexible of all development methodologies

Software components delivered early and often

Iterative, incremental approach

Variations: Scrum, Kanban, Scrumban, and extreme programming

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Figure 13.4 Stages in the Agile Methodology

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Agile software development methods

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Scrum is a framework that consists of small self-organizing, cross-functional Scrum Teams who work together to produce small pieces of a system iteratively and incrementally in sprints to maximize opportunities for feedback.

Kanban is Japanese for a signboard. It is a visual process and project management methodology used in systems development projects.

Scrumban combines certain aspects of Scrum and Kanban originally designed as a way to transition from Scrum to Kanban.

Extreme programming emphasizes business results first and takes an incremental approach to building software, using continual testing and revision.

Software Development Methodologies: DevOps

DevOps: DEVelopment and IT OPerations

Emphasizes collaboration between software developers, operators and testers involved in the development and operations of information systems

Developed to address gap in communication and collaboration

Creates culture where building, testing and delivery of a system can happen quickly, frequently and reliably

Lowers failure rate of new releases

Shortens time to market

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Systems Development Tools and Techniques: JAD, RAD, and Prototyping

Joint Application Development (JAD) is a team-oriented technique used in the planning and analysis stages of the SDLC to collect business requirements.

Rapid Application Development (RAD) is an interactive process used throughout the SDLC continuing until the system is completely developed and all users are satisfied with the outcome.

Rapid Prototyping is an iterative process used to quickly create an early sample, model or release of a system to test a concept or process.

A prototype is a working model of a system or part of a system usually built to demonstrate it to users, who can test it, and request rework as necessary.

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Systems Development Tools and Techniques: CASE Tools

CASE tools refer to software used to automate systems development. There are three classes of CASE tools that automate many of the SDLC activities:

Upper CASE tools: Used in the planning and analysis stages of the SDLC to perform repetitive activities such as gathering requirements, diagramming processes, and presenting them in an organized way.

Lower CASE tools: Used in the design, implementation/testing, and support/maintenance stages of the SDLC to automatically generate code, test for functionality and defects, monitor implementation, and perform software maintenance activities.

Integrated CASE tools: Used in all the stages of the SDLC from requirements gathering to testing and documentation.

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Systems Development Tools and Techniques: Code Generators

A source code generator automatically generates common application source code in any computer programming language, for example, BASIC, VB, PHP, ASP, NET, SQL, C#, Java Script.

A low-code development platform is software that provides developers and nondevelopers with an intuitive graphical user interface instead of a traditional computer programming environment to create apps.

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Software Development Methodologies: Questions

Name the different types of systems development methodologies.

What the is the main difference between the waterfall method and the Agile method?

Why is it important for an organization to be flexible when developing ISs?

Why is the concept of DevOps appealing to organizations?

How is RAD different from JAD?

What are the three classes of CASE tools?

What is a low-code development platform? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

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Learning Objectives (3 of 5)

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Systems Development

Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects

Software Development Methodologies

Monitoring/ Controlling and Closing Projects

Project, Program and Portfolio Management

Project, Program and Portfolio Management (PPPM)

Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

Program is a group of similar or related projects that are managed and coordinated as a group.

Portfolio is group of unrelated programs within an organization that are managed holistically to achieve strategic goals.

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Project, program and portfolio management occurs at different levels of an organization’s hierarchy.

Management of individual projects occurs at the operational level of an organization.

Programs are managed at the tactical level, and portfolio management is an integral part of business strategy.

Project Management

The discipline of using established principles, procedures, and policies to successfully guide a project from start to finish.

A project is the lowest component in the hierarchy of project, program and portfolio management (PPPM).

Each project has a set time to start and a deadline for completion.

Project sponsor is a person or organization that approves and/or supports the allocation of resources for a project, defines its goals, and evaluates the success of the project at completion.

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Project success

Project success is becoming increasingly reliant on four things:

Engaged executive sponsors

Projects aligned with organizational strategy

Control over scope creep

High project management technology quotient (PMTQ): PMTQ is a person’s ability to adapt, manage, and integrate technology based on the needs of the project or the organization.

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The Role of the Project Manager

The project manager is the central point of contact in a project.

The project manager’s main responsibility is to manage the triple constraint—scope, time, and cost—to meet project objectives while ensuring project quality.

Successful project management is not only built on creating and managing systems and processes, but also requires developing and maintaining strong relationships with all project stakeholders.

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Program Management

Occurs at the tactical level of an organization

A program is a group of related projects

A program doesn’t always have a single, clearly defined deliverable or timeline

Managing related projects as a group in an overarching program results in much better utilization of resources than a single project.

Benefits that an organization can realize from using a structured approach to program management include increased synergy between projects, optimal use of resources, less resource constraints, improved communication through better coordination among projects, and ultimately better business performance.

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The Role of Program Manager

They provide oversight to ensure that each project in the program is completed effectively and efficiently to produce quality deliverables that meet stakeholder requirements.

Their focus is on overseeing project work and resources in projects that are currently in their program.

This focus on current projects ensures work and resources are moving between projects at the right time and that resource needs of all projects are met.

A project manager creates a master schedule to manage the dependencies between project, a risk manager plan, and a communication strategy to ensure that any changes that are necessary.

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Portfolio Management

Occurs at the strategic level of the organization

Is the centralized management of all projects currently proposed, in progress, or planned for the future to identify investment synergies, resource and budget considerations between projects

Looking at projects holistically enables executive management to review portfolios and programs, to determine which projects are or are not necessary, and in what order they should be completed

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The Role of the Portfolio Manager

Some of the responsibilities of the portfolio manager are as follows:

Map proposed projects to overall organization objectives and strategies.

Assess the value that a proposed project brings to the company.

Assess the complexity of proposed projects.

Prioritize project proposals for project selection.

Prioritize programs to keep up with changing business strategies.

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PPPM Frameworks

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The two most widely used PPPM frameworks are:

PMI® Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK 6e):

currently the definitive guide for managing projects of all types.

Developed in the United States by the PMI.

PRINCE2 (PRojects IN a Controlled Environment):

a project management methodology developed by the Cabinet Office in the United Kingdom and currently managed and developed by AXELOS

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The Project Triple Constraint

Scope: The project scope is the specification of what the project is supposed to accomplish—

Time: A project is made up of tasks. Each task has a start date and an end date.

Cost: This is the estimation of the amount of money that will be required to complete the project.

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Project, Program and Portfolio Management: Questions

What distinguishes a project from day-to-day operations?

What are the differences between PPPM?

In what ways are the roles of project, program and portfolio managers different?

What are the three components of the triple constraint?

What are the five phases in the project management life cycle?

Why is it important to use a structured project management approach?

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Learning Objectives (4 of 5)

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Systems Development

Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects

Software Development Methodologies

Monitoring/ Controlling and Closing Projects

Project, Program and Portfolio Management

Project Initiation

Business Case – Presentation or document that outlines the justification for the start-up and funding of a project

Statement of Work (SOW) – Definitive statement that defines the project plan, but does not offer any options or alternatives in the scope

Project Charter – Specifies scope, authority, milestones, budget, source of funding for project

Templates are often used to create many of the project management documents, including the business case, the SOW, and the project charter.

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Project Planning

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Identifies all work or activities that need to be performed, the schedule of work, and who will perform the work.

Milestones are used to manage the project work effort, monitor results, and report meaningful status to project stakeholders.

Risk Register

Lists all known risks and an estimation of risks that could occur.

Also lists the source of each risk, how you will respond to each risk and the name of the person responsible for addressing the risk.

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Project Execution

Gantt Chart

A horizontal bar chart that shows the timeline of the project schedule showing start and finish dates of all milestones.

Cost Estimation

Costs are not technically part of the WBS, but projects’ estimated cost can be calculated from the WBS using start date and duration.

Responsibility Matrix

Shows who has primary responsibility and who has support responsibility for the activities listed in the WBS.

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Learning Objectives (5 of 5)

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Systems Development

Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects

Software Development Methodologies

Monitoring/ Controlling and Closing Projects

Project, Program and Portfolio Management

Project Monitoring: Status Report

Prepared and reviewed to check on the progress of the project

Typically prepared once a week

Can include a summary of the project status, work planned, work completed, open issues, open risks, status of project milestones and deliverables, open change requests, project KPIs, schedule status and cost status

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Project Controlling: Scope Creep

Is the piling up of small changes that by themselves are manageable but in aggregate are significant

Contributes to overages in budget, deadline, and/or resources

Standard project management approaches reduce scope creep

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Project Monitoring: Integrated Change Control

Process helps to manage the disruption resulting from requested changes and corrective actions across the project life cycle.

Required to defend:

Approved/rejected change requests

Updates to the project plan/scope

Approved corrective and preventive actions

Approved/validated defect repair

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Project Control: Critical Path Analysis

All projects have a critical path that extends the length of the project and determines the shortest path along which all projects tasks must be completed in order to finish the project.

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Project Monitoring: Project Baseline Plan

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When the project plan is finalized and accepted, the accepted plan becomes the baseline or master plan.

The baseline is used for monitoring and controlling.

Any change to the baseline is a deviation, or variance, to the plan—and it needs to be documented.

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Phase Five: Project Closing

Project Closing or Postmortem

The enterprise and people who worked on the project benefit from lessons learned.

Post-project reviews, or post mortems, identify the reasons the project was successful or not, strengths and weaknesses of the project plan, how problems were detected and resolved, and how the project was successful in spite of them.

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Project Closing: Lessons Learned

Communication is King

Set Realistic and Detailed Project Plans with Adequate Time and Resources

Encourage Timely Feedback and Be Willing to Listen

Manage Risk with Regular Project Status Reviews

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Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing: Questions

What processes help ensure that the impacts resulting from requested changes and corrective actions are managed across the project life cycle?

What happens when a task on the critical path is delayed?

What are the three attributes that must be managed effectively for successful completion and closure of any project?

Why are lessons learned from a completed project identified?

Why is the evaluation of a project’s success or failure somewhat subjective?

What are three best practices to keep projects on track?

Why are IT projects high susceptible to scope creep?

Why is it important for an organization to have a high PMTQ? And, how can they maintain it?

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Copyright

Copyright © 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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