24. What is a common consequence of early
maturation for girls?
a. higher grades in school
b. high levels of leadership abilities
c. higher levels of conflict with
d. loyalty to friends
25. Which of the following does NOTcontribute
to sleep deprivation during adolescence?
a. Adolescents are likely to stay up
late at night doing homework.
b. Adolescents spend more time in deep
sleep leaving them more tired during the day.
c. Many adolescents are in activities
that involve before-school preparation.
d. High school tends to start earlier
than middle and elementary schools.
26. Alex is in eighth grade and is getting a lot less sleep than he did
in sixth and seventh grade because
he stays up late doing his homework and
working on the computer. As a result,
Alex is experiencing _____.
a. depressive symptoms
b. higher self esteem
c. higher grades
d. anorexia nervosa
27. One change in mental activity that occurs during early
adolescence is that young people are able to _____.
a. generate hypotheses about events
they have never perceived
b. generate perceptions based on
c. consciously experience changes in
d. use motor behavior as the basis of
28. Which of the following is NOT one of the important changes
in the brain that occurs during adolescence?
reduction of synapses
myelination of nerve fibers
developments in the prefrontal cortex
in the number of neurons
29. According to Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive
development that is attained in early adolescence is called
a. information processing
b. formal operations
c. general intelligence
30. Which of the following is an important
characteristic of formal operational thought?
ability to think about themselves, other individuals, and their world in
b. the ability to use sensory and
motor schemes to solve non-verbal problems
c. the ability to conform to the expectations
of one’s peers in guiding one’s behavior
d. the ability to do trial and error
31. Which of the following is likely to be possible because one
has attained formal operational thinking?
a. categorizing objects
b. solving conservation problems
c. doing complicated calculations
d. thinking about things changing in
32. Which of the following is the most
accurate statement about formal operational thinking?
new skills are required; there is a more complex intermingling of skills
learned in previous stages.
b. It is best developed through rote
learning of complex material.
c. New skills help the person
anticipate the consequences of their actions.
d. It depends upon thoughts generated
by remote associations to well-learned concepts.
33. The changes in conceptual development
that occur during the early adolescent period can result in ______.
a. a less flexible, critical, and
longitudinal view of the world
b. fewer creative ideas
c. greater belief in one’s own ideas
and relatively little understanding of others’ ideas
d. a more flexible, critical, and
abstract view of the world
34. According to the text, egocentrism may
best be described as ____________________.
a. an attitude children have that they
are better than other people
limited perspective a child displays at the beginning of each new phase of
c. a feeling of self-admiration
d. a sense that one’s own peer group
is better than other peer groups
35. Which of the following best describes
egocentrism in the early-adolescent period?
a. realizing that one’s ideals are not
shared by everyone
b. realizing that some people do not
c. an inability to recognize that
others may not share one’s own hypothetical system
d. an inability to identify one’s
values or goals.
36. Bob, a high school junior, feels very strongly about the
need for the protection of the environment. He realizes, however, that not
everyone feels the same way he does. This is an example of which of the
37. Adolescents may believe that their thoughts and feelings
are unique; that no one else is thinking what they are thinking. Elkind
referred to this as _______________.
a. a personal fable
b. a contextual dilemma
c. cognitive dissonance
d. an imaginary audience
38. How is the idea of an imaginary
audience related to adolescent egocentrism?
a. Adolescents believe their imaginary
audience is unique.
b. Adolescents worry about having
c. Adolescents think that everyone is
aware of and preoccupied by their thoughts.
d. Adolescents become shy when people
give them too much attention.
39. Which of the following is a potential
negative effect of egocentrism in early adolescence?
a. to become more sociable and
b. to become more flexible in
considering alternative possibilities
become overwhelmed by the intensity of one’s ideas and not accept evidence of a
different point of view
d. to become less willing to commit
40. Which of the following is a social
environmental factor that promotes formal operational thought?
a. watching TV
b. participation in a variety of role
c. withdrawing from peer interaction
d. dropping out of high school
41. As a high school freshman, Carl has become part of a
friendship group that involves students from a wide variety of family
backgrounds. This is having an impact on his cognitive development. What is the
ability to think in a relativistic way about self, others, and the world
likelihood of a successful resolution of group identity
capacity to think logically about the future
42. According to research on formal
b. most 13 year olds used formal
operational strategies on most problems
c. formal operational thought is
observed consistently by adults in all cultures.
d. mature scientific reasoning does
not require formal operational thought
d. most 15 year olds do not use formal
operational strategies on all problems
of the following is a criticism of formal operational reasoning as a stage of
a. It does not describe the sensory
based reasoning of which adolescents are capable.
b. It does not deal with the ability
of adolescents to raise hypotheses about an unknown future.
is not broad enough to encompass the many dimensions along which cognitive
functioning changes in adolescence.
d. It includes too
many dimensions such as the biological basis and social context of reasoning.
44. The kind of reasoning associated with diplomacy,
psychotherapy, and spiritual leadership is called _______.
45. The interdependence of emotion and cognition may result in .
management of emotional expression
the feelings of others
of one’s emotional complexity
to defend against the behavior of family and friends
46. Larson and Lampman-Petraitis gave electronic paging devices
to monitor adolescents’ emotions. They found that adolescents experienced
a. frequent, sudden shifts from
intense anger to intense joy
b. more positive emotions than younger
c. more mildly negative emotions than
d. an increase in variability of
emotions with age
47. Which of the following is an example of how adolescent
girls differ in their emotional responses from adolescent boys? Adolescent girls are ___________________.
a. more likely than boys to experience
strong feelings of anger at others
b. more likely than boys to feel
contemptuous of others
c. less likely than boys to experience
d. more likely than boys to experience
48. Researchers have found that both boys and girls with more
mature body shape report more thoughts and feelings that are related to .
49. As adolescents become aware of a more differentiated array
of emotions, boys are more likely to have a heightened awareness of new levels
of negative emotions that focus on .
a. being crazy
d. frustration and tension
50. After puberty, boys and girls show noticeably different
levels of aggression. Problems that
result from difficulties in managing
aggression are known as .
d. turning against the self