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51. Devil’s advocate
technique is similar to brainstorming in that both techniques prevent
individuals from challenging other group member’s assumptions.

52. Brainwriting refers to the tendency of people in groups to
suppress contrary opinions.
53. Point-counterpoint is a decision-making technique in which people
are assigned to express competing points of view.

54. Decision making involves effort both before and after the actual

55. Making a choice is the most significant part of the
decision-making process.

56. In the real world, few decisions are certain.

57. A highly ambiguous situation can create what is sometimes called a
wicked decision problem.

58. The approach that managers use to make decisions usually falls
into one of three types – the classical model, the administrative model, and
the political model.

59. The growth of quantitative decision techniques that use computers
has reduced the use of the classical approach.

60. According to the classical model of decision making, managers’
searches for alternatives are limited because of human, information, and
resource constraints.

61. Good intuitive decision making is based on an ability to recognize
patterns at lightning speed.

62. The classical model of decision-making works best in organizations
that are made up of groups with diverse interests, goals, and values.

63. Administrative and political decision making procedures and
intuition have been associated with high performance in unstable environments
in which decisions must be made rapidly and under more difficult conditions.
64. Managers should be asking questions such as “What is the urgency
of the problem?” during the development of alternatives stage of managerial

65. Individuals with a conceptual decision-making style are more
socially oriented than those with an analytical style.

66. When managers look for information that supports their existing
instinct or point of view, avoiding information that contradicts it, they are
justifying past decisions.

67. Studies show that electronic brainstorming generates about 20
percent fewer ideas than traditional brainstorming.

68. Groupthink refers to the tendency of people in groups to suppress
contrary opinions.

69. One area where speed is not particularly crucial is when an
organization faces a crisis.


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