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1. The view of gender differences that
emphasizes the role of socially agreed-upon norms for particular types of
interaction is called the __________________ perspective.
a. constructivist
b. psychoanalytic
c. individual differences
d. cognitive developmental

2. Which of the following statements
is accurate?
a. Girls are always more passive than
boys.
b. Boys are always more passive than
girls.
c. Girls are more passive when they are
playing with boys than when they are playing with other girls.
d. Passivity is genetically rather
than socially determined.

3. According to research on the brain,
girls process emotions in an area of the brain close to the speech center,
whereas boys process emotions in the limbic system, more closely liked to
action. What is one consequence of this
difference?
a. It is easier for boys to express
their emotions in words than for girls.
b. It is easier for girls to express
their emotions in words than for boys.
c. Girls get so emotional they cannot
speak.
d. Boys get so emotional they cannot
act.

4. In a staff meeting, the men speak
first and the women listen, waiting until they have something new or different
to offer. How might the individual
differences perspective on gender roles interpret this behavior?
a. Women are naturally more cautious
and passive than men.
b. Women have a less well-developed
problem-solving capacity than men.
c. Women defer to men out of respect
for their power and authority.
d. All of these fit with an individual
differences perspective.

5. Which of the following terms refers
to the integrated cognitive, social, and emotional schemes associated with
being male or female?
a. sex
b. sexual orientation
c. gender
d. gender constancy

6. Which of the following is the
earliest component of gender role identification to be achieved?
a. sex-role preference
b. correct use of gender labels
c. sex-role standards
d. understanding that gender is
constant

7. Terms such as “boy,”
“girl,” “mommy,” “daddy,” “aunt,” and
“uncle” are examples of _____________.
a. sex-role stereotypes
b. gender bias
c. gender labels
d. sex-role standards

8. What are gender-role standards?
a. cultural expectations about
appropriate behavior for boys and girls, men and women
b. knowing that gender is stable, i.e.
girls become women, boys become men
c. wanting to do the things that
members of your sex are expected to do
d. wanting to grow up to be like your
same-sex parent

9. How does the knowledge of gender-role
standards influence a child’s behavior?
a. It influences how much they love
their parents.
b. It influences their food
preferences and tastes.
c. It influences their preferences for
certain toys and games.
d. It influences whether they will go
to preschool.

10. The cognitive underpinning of one’s
gender role identification is referred to as a gender __________.
a. preference
b. constant
c. label
d. scheme

11. Some parents believe that boys should
be assertive and girls should try to please others. This is an example of
________________.
a. a gender-role standard
b. a gender label
c. a gender-role preference
d. none of these

12. What is an example of the idea that the family environment
is gendered?
a. Fathers are more assertive than
mothers in their interactions with children.

b. Fathers and mothers are both
employed outside the home.
c. Families can be categorized by the
sex of the head of household.
d. Children have less power in
families than adults.

13. What is a term for the process through
which one person incorporates the values and beliefs of another?
a. heteronomous morality
b. sex-role preference
c. status
d. identification

14. The establishment of a gender
preference depends on three factors. Which of the following is NOT one of
these?
a. the match between one’s strength
and competence and the expectations of the gender-role standards
b. how much one likes the parent of
the same sex
c. understanding that gender is
constant and stable
d. cues from the culture valuing one
sex over the other

15. Which of the following aspects of
gender identification is related to the degree to which one’s talents and
interests match the gender-role standards?
a. using gender labels
b. identifying with the same-sex parent
c. learning gender-role standards
d. establishing a gender preference

16. Cultural cues that one sex is valued
more than the other contributes to which of the following?
a. use of gender labels
b. understanding of gender constancy
c. learning gender-role standards
d. forming a gender preference

17. You hear a five-year-old girl say,
“I love my mommy. When I grow up I want to be just like her.” This is
an example of which of the following?
a. understanding gender labels
b. identifying with the same-sex
parent
c. knowledge of gender-role standards
d. none of these

18. Children raised by gay or lesbian
parents have _________.
a. homosexual gender preferences
b. gender preferences that are similar
to children raised in heterosexual homes
c. a higher likelihood of becoming a
homosexual
d. none of these

19. For the early-school-age child, moral
development involves a process of learning the family’s moral code and then
using it to guide behavior. This is called __________.
a. gender-role preference
b. avoidance conditioning
c. internalization
d. induction

20. Moral development in the
early-school-age years involves growth in three domains – learning the moral
code, experiencing emotions that encourage caring and remorse, and
______________.
a. taking morally appropriate actions
b. writing and reading about moral
situations
c. discussing moral dilemmas with
peers
d. experimenting with new social roles

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