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1.
Which of the following is an
example of organizations as units of analysis?
2.
Construct validity refers to
generalizing from what we observe and measure to the real-world things in which
we are interested.
3.
Joseph Maxwell identified “how
credible and believable it is” as one criterion for assessing an idiographic
explanation.
4.
Which of the following is
accurate with respect to time dimensions?
5.
According to the text book,
because time order is a requirement for causal inferences, the time dimension
of research requires
6.
Regarding nomothetic explanation,
which of the following specific criteria for causality do researchers
consider?
7.
After careful study of the
relationship between the economy and arson, the conclusion was drawn that when
the economy is poor and unemployment is high the arson rates go up. The
researcher concluded that unemployed people are more likely to commit arson
than are those that are employed. What error was just committed?
8.
In a general sense, external
validity is concerned with whether research findings from one study can be
9.
A survey distributed on a
college campus discovered that males support the death penalty in greater
numbers than do females. The units of analysis in this case would be
10.
Observations of shoplifters in
Pueblo, Colorado characterized as “72 percent men and 28 percent women, with an
average age of 15.4 years” constitutes which type of analysis?
11.
A study of the commentary made
about the Patriot Act in 50 major newspapers’ editorials found that newspapers
in the northeast gave more attention to the subject than did papers in any
other part of the country. What is the unit of analysis being used?
12.
The well-known Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment, discussed in Chapter 1, provides another example
of
13.
Which of the following is not a
type of longitudinal study?
14.
Which of the following would
allow a researcher to measure change in a general population over time?
15.
Manipulation of the collected
data in order to draw conclusions refers to

16.
Which of the following is
correct?
17.
All but which of the following
would be a unit of analysis?
a.

18.
Which of the following —refers
to the danger of making assertions about individuals as the unit of analysis
based on the examination of groups or other aggregations?
19.
Marvin Wolfgang’s study of
males born in Philadelphia in 1945 was an attempt to measure delinquency by
following those males from their 10th birthday until they were 18. This is an
example of what type of study?
20.
Causally related can also be
expressed as
21.
Professor Hardy has spent the
last decade conducting a study of the effects of early childhood “Wellness”
programs on subsequent delinquency. Every year, researchers visit participating
families and collect a variety of data. Over the course of 10 years, many
families have moved away and the research staff has been unable to locate them.
What problem has Professor Hardy encountered?

22.
The idea that two variables
must vary together (i.e. must be empirically correlated)—is a nomothetic
criterion of causality.
23.
Which of the following is not
true concerning a cohort study?
zcohort members
are studied as individuals as well as their group affiliation
24.
Nonsystematic bias would be
found in what type of validity problem?
25.
Which of the following are
social artifacts?
26.
Despite a record number of cars
being stolen in Newark, NJ in 2000, Newark’s auto theft rate was really lower
than that of Miami, Denver and Chicago. The unit of analysis used in this
example is?
27.
In the following research
conclusion, what units of analysis are being used? “An enormous variation of
deviant activities was represented in a sample of 1,485 news items. We
categorized these deviant activities into five general types of analysis:
violence, economic, political, ideological/cultural and diversionary.”
28.
Retrospective studies have the
danger of faulty memories or even subjects lying.
29.
Rather than try to exclude or
otherwise control possible outside influences, scientific realism studies how
such influences are involved in
a.

30.
If X comes before Y in
time,
31.
Which of the following is an
example of a panel study?
32.
One cannot be convicted of a crime unless one is charged
with the crime. Being charged with a crime is representative of:
33.
A researcher compared the
recidivism rates of drug abusers that were given probation with those that were
sentenced to prison and discovered that the recidivism rates were highest for
those given prison. What potential error is reflected by this conclusion?
34.
Households used by the National
Crime Victimization Survey are an example of which unit of analysis?
35.
What is the order of steps the
typical researcher will take in the research process?
36.
When we are concerned with
whether we are correct in inferring that a cause produced an effect, we are
concerned with the:
37.
Our ability to determine
whether a change in the cause is statistically associated with a change in the
effect is referring to what type of validity?
38.
Identifying the population and
sample precede which of the following tasks in a research project?
39.
Which of the following is not a
characteristic of a cross-sectional study?
40.
Prospective studies are
completed quickly since you only have to ask people to project what they would
do or how they will act in the future.
41.
Which of the following would
serve as a “snap shot” of a phenomenon at one point in time?
42.
After a one-year study of the
recidivism rates of boot camps in the state of Georgia, the lowest rates were
found in the boot camps located in Macon. What units of analysis were used in
this study?
43.
Dr. Stone is interested in
comparing the attitudes about teenage pregnancy between the United States and
the Netherlands. He selects samples in both countries of 10 year old males and
females and plans to survey a portion of them every other year for the next ten
years. Stone is using what technique?
44.
Which term best describes—an overly
strict limitation on the kinds of concepts and variables to be considered as
causes in explaining the broad range of human behavior represented by crime and
criminal justice policy?
45.
Which type of research study
project is designed to permit observations over an extended period of
time?
46.
Which of the following would be
an example of a retrospective approach to longitudinal studies?
a.

47.
A major mid-western university
does annual surveys of its alumni. These surveys are designed to gauge the
attitudes that alumni hold about the university, its academic programs, and the
major team sports. These surveys have been an annual event for the last two
decades and represent which type of study?

48.
In examining the relationship
between drug use and crime discussed in your text, which of the following
represents an internal validity threat?
49.
When we specify what we mean by
a concept we are using what?
50.
In an examination of violent
crime among the most populous nations in the world, the United States ranks
very high along with England, France and Australia. The chance of being raped
is higher in France than in the United States. What units of analysis are being
used?
a.

51.
Decisions concerning who or
what to study relate to
52.
Social artifacts refer only to
paper documents, such as newspapers, court opinions and police crime reports.
53.
Causation in social science is
the foundation for exploratory research.
54.
Conceptualization refers to
The effects of violence in children’s
programming is a major research endeavor that requires counting the number of
violent acts in Saturday morning cartoons for an entire year. The units of
analysis being used for this project are

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