Marketing communications are
the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind
consumers—directly or indirectly—about the products and brands that they
sell. List the eight major modes of communication that make up the
marketing communications mix.
Explain the elements of the macromodel of communication process
and list the nine elements contained.
For a buyer with high
involvement with a product category who perceives high differentiation
within it, describe the six elements of the hierarchy-of-effects model.
There are eight steps in
developing effective communications. List these steps in their order of
Formulating the communications to achieve the desired response
will require solving the problems of message strategy and creative strategy
among others. Define and then describe the differences between these two
A spokesperson’s credibility is
very important to his or her effectiveness as a message source. What
factors underlie source credibility and what makes for the most highly
Explain the principle of
congruity as it pertains to message sources. And what happens when a
person holds one attitude toward the source and the opposite toward the
Many companies set promotion
expenditures at a specified percentage of sales or of the sales price.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method?
Why do companies use sales
promotion tools, and what three distinctive benefits do these tools offer?
Communication tools vary in
cost-effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness. Discuss which communication
tools are most cost-effective at the five stages of buyer readiness.