perform many functions for consumers such as telling or showing how and
why a product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when.
The rapid diffusion of powerful
broadband Internet connections, digital video recorders, multipurpose cell
phones, and portable music and video players has bolstered the
effectiveness of the mass media.
Every brand contact delivers an
impression that can strengthen or weaken a customer’s view of the company.
The starting point in planning
marketing communications is an audit of all the brands that customers in
the target market have with the company.
Because brand awareness and
brand recall operate along the same brand recognition continuum, anything
that causes the consumer to notice and pay attention to the brand will
enhance brand recall.
In the macromodel of
communication, noise does not affect the communication process between
sender and receiver.
Micromodels of marketing
communications concentrate on consumers’ specific responses to communications.
“learn-do-feel” model of consumer response models is relevant when the
audience has low involvement and perceives little differentiation within
the product category.
All consumers that develop a
preference for a given product also display a conviction about buying it.
Though we can profile the target audience in terms of any number
of market segments, it’s often useful to do so in terms of usage and loyalty.
Brand recall is easier to achieve than brand recognition.
Promotional offers in the form of coupons or two-for-one deals
encourage consumers to make a mental commitment to buy a product, particularly
if the consumer does not have an expressed category need.
can be set at any level of the hierarchy-of-effect model.
An informational appeal
elaborates on product or service attributes or benefits.
Attention-getting tactics are often too effective and distract
from brand or product claims.
Two-sided messages are more effective when negative associations
must be overcome.
The factors that underlie
source credibility include expertise, trustworthiness, and
Borrowed-interest approaches to attract attention and create more
liking and belief in the sponsor may also detract from comprehension, wear out
their welcome fast, and overshadow the product.
Messages delivered by attractive or popular sources can achieve
higher attention and recall.
If a person has a positive attitude toward a source and a message,
or a negative attitude toward both, a state of congruity is said to exist.
The principle of congruity
implies that communicators can use their good image to reduce some
negative feelings toward a brand but in the process might lose some esteem
with the audience.
Companies that sell their
products to different cultures or in different countries do not need to
worry about varying their message.
Selecting efficient channels to carry the message becomes more
difficult as channels of communication become more fragmented and cluttered.
channels derive their effectiveness through individualized presentation and
Most nonpersonal messages come
through paid media.
Mass communications affect
personal attitudes and behavior through a two-step process.
Events always have a lasting
effect on brand awareness, knowledge, and preference.
The influence of mass media on
public opinion is as direct, powerful, and automatic as supposed.
89.The two-step flow
confirms the notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by the “trickle-down”
or “trickle-up” effect from mass media.
The percentage-of-sales method
of setting promotional expenditures calculates spending dollars based upon
a percentage of last years’ total sales.
objective-and-task method calls upon marketers to develop promotion
budgets by defining specific objectives, determining the tasks that must
be performed to achieve these objectives, and estimating the costs of
performing these tasks.
method of promotions budgeting has been repeatedly shown to prevent promotion
Advertising can be used to build up a long-term image for a
product or trigger quick sales.
The pervasiveness of
advertising permits the seller to repeat a message many times. It also
allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various
Companies must consider several
factors in developing their communications mix: the type of product
market, consumer readiness to make a purchase, and stage in the product’s
life cycle. Also important is the company’s market rank.
In measuring communication
results, senior managers want to know the outcomes and revenues resulting
from their communications investments.
communications is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes
the added value of a comprehensive plan.
The awareness and attitudes
created by advertising campaigns do not generally affect the success of
direct sales pitches.
Integrated marketing communications can produce stronger message
consistency and greater sales impact.
In assessing the collective
impact of an IMC program, the overriding goal is to create the most
effective and efficient communications program possible.