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11. In many respects, the
____________________ model represents an “ideal” model
decision-making and can’t usually be attained by real people in real

12. The ____________________ model of decision making describes how
managers actually make decisions in difficult situations, such as those
characterized by nonprogrammed decision, uncertainty, and ambiguity.

13. The recognition that people have limits on how rational they can
be is known as ____________________.

14. ____________________ means that decision-makers choose the first
solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria.

15. A(n) ____________________ approach describes how managers actually
make decisions, not how they should.

16. ____________________ represents a quick apprehension of a decision
situation based on past experience but without conscious thought.

17. ____________________ is the process of forming alliances among

18. A(n) ____________________ occurs when organizational
accomplishment is less than established goals.

19. ____________________ exists when managers see potential of
enhancing performance beyond current levels.

20. The step in the decision making process in which managers analyze
the underlying causal factors associated with the situation is called

21. ____________________ is the willingness to undertake risk with the
opportunity of gaining an increased payoff.

22. The ____________________ stage involves the use of managerial,
administrative, and persuasive abilities to ensure that the chosen alternative
is carried out.

23. ____________________ is important because decision making is a
continuous, never ending process.

24. Differences among people with respect to how they perceive
problems and make decisions is called ____________________.

25. The ____________________ style is often the style adopted by
managers having a deep concern for others as individuals.

26. People with a(n) ____________________ style usually are concerned
with the personal development of others and may make decisions that help others
achieve their goals.

27. A(n) ____________________ is assigned the role of challenging the
assumptions and assertions made by the group.

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