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1. Match the stage in the development of social attachment
with the best description of what happens during that stage)
Stage in the Development of Social Attachment
a. Stage 1 (birth to 3 months)
b. Stage 2 (3 to 6 months)
c. Stage 3 (6 to 9 months)
d. Stage 4 (9 to 12 months)
e. Stage 5 (12 months and beyond)

Description of What Happens in a Stage
1. (d) infant
forms internal mental representation of object of attachment
2. (a) infant
uses sucking, rooting, gazing, smiling, cuddling, and visual tracking to
maintain closeness
3. (c) infant
seeks physical proximity and contact with caregiver
4. (b) infant
more responsive to familiar figures than to strangers
5. (e) child
uses a variety of behaviors to influence the behavior of objects of attachment
in ways that will satisfy needs for safety and closeness

2. Match the type of attachment with
the behaviors that accompany it. (
Type of
a. Secure attachment
b. Anxious-avoidant attachment
c. Anxious-resistant attachment
d. Disorganized attachment

1. (b) show
less distress at being alone than other babies
2. (d) no
consistent strategy for managing the stress of separation
3. (c) very
cautious in the presence of strangers and hard to soothe upon caregiver’s
4. (a) actively
explore their environment and interact with strangers when mothers are present

3. Match the period of emotional
development with the characteristic of this period
of Emotional Development
a. first month
b. 1 to 6 months
c. 6 to 12 months
d. 12 to 24 months

1. (d) new
level of awareness of the capacity to give and receive pleasure as well as of
the vulnerability of self and others
2. (a) emotional
responses closely tied to the internal state of the infant
3. (b) emotions
begin to be tied to a separation of self and environment
4. (c) emotions
reflect the baby’s ability to recall previous experiences and to compare them
with an on-going event


1. Give
three reasons why very-low-birth-weight babies are at risk for cognitive
delays. probability of brain hemorrhage

2. Give three examples of aspects of
the visual array that infants can detect. (

3. What
is the sequence of events in the Strange Situation? What behaviors are this
situation designed to stimulate? ()

4. What are two characteristics of
mothers whose babies develop anxious-avoidant attachment? (

5. Give
two examples of relationships formed in adolescence or adulthood that may be
influenced by the quality of early attachments.

6. What three capacities must infants
develop in order to achieve complex, purposeful causal behaviors during the
first two years of life?

7. Explain
how the lack of the scheme for object permanence relates to separation anxiety.


8. Describe
three ways that emotions develop during infancy)

9. What
are some ways mistrust may be expressed in behavior?

10. What
are three ways that the prime adaptive ego qualities influence a person’s
outlook on life? (

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