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81. Which of the following is most
accurate about infant emotion in the first 2 years of life?
a. Emotions are tied to internal
states of pain and pleasure during the first 2 years of life.
b. Emotions change in stage-like
progression from internal physical expressions to differentiation of self in
relation to others in the environment.
c. Infant emotional expressions remain
limited and unchanging during the first 2 years with no stage-like progression.
d. Infant emotions are primarily
negative in the first 2 years, reflecting wariness, anger, and defiance.

82. Social
smiles begin to be observed ________________.
a. at about one year
b. at
about 20 weeks
c. at
about 5 weeks
d. 12
hours after birth

83. Which
is an example of a cognitive or mastery smile?
a. smile
at being tickled
b. smile
at making a bell jingle
c. smile
at seeing a favorite toy
d. smile
at seeing mommy in the morning

84. What
is the relationship of high levels of motor activity and frequent crying at 4
months of age to later development?
a. There
is no relationship to later behavior.
b. These
babies become high exploring, curious toddlers.
c. These
babies show greater fearfulness and shyness at later ages.
d. These
babies have fewer behavior problems than the quiet, less active infants.

85. Japanese parents try to regulate anger
by ____________.
a. displacing their feelings of anger
toward an acceptable target such as a doll
b. minimizing their children’s
exposure to anger or frustration
c. encouraging their children to express
anger when they feel it
d. talking about their feelings when
they are angry

86. Which of the following family factors
is tied to increases in an infant’s negative emotionality?
a. being
a first born child
b. high
levels of marital dissatisfaction for mother or father
c. low
educational level of mother
d. lack
of grandparent involvement in childcare

87. When
parents and infants can understand each other’s emotions, creating and
modifying shared interactions in response to each other, this is called
a. intersubjectivity
b. conformity
c. equivalence
d. self-recognition

88. On her first birthday, Emily looks at
her mother as they observe the clown coming to her party. At first Emily is
crying. Then her mother smiles and acts very happy, so Emily smiles, too. This
is an example of ________.
a. empathy
b. attachment
c. visual acuity
d. social referencing

89. The
psychosocial crisis of infancy is _______________.
a. initiative
versus guilt
b. autonomy
versus shame and doubt
c. industry
versus inferiority
d. trust
versus mistrust

90. Which
of the following statements captures the sense of trust?
a. A
trusting relationship links confidence about the past with faith about the
b. A
trusting relationship has nothing to do with the past, only the present.
c. A
trusting relationship is only about the other person; not about oneself.
d. A
trusting relationship can only be experienced once in a lifetime.

91. If the caregiver is unable to
differentiate the infant’s needs or responds harshly to those needs, the infant
is likely to develop a sense of __________________.
a. mutuality
b. synchrony
c. mistrust
d. hope
92. The
critical period is _______________________.
a. the
period of maximal readiness to achieve a behavior pattern or skill
b. the
age of 2 months for establishing infant/caregiver attachment
c. not
critical to humans
d. the
age of 2 months for establishing trust

93. Konrad
Lorenz applied the concept of critical periods to social development. He
the process of ____________ in
young birds.
a. adaptation
b. developmental
c. stranger
d. imprinting

94. Observations of naturally occurring
disruptions in the parent-infant relationship suggest that the onset of a
critical period for attachment occurs at which age?
a. 18 months
b. 12 months
c. 6 months
d. 3 months

95. What aspect of the question regarding
a critical period for attachment remains unanswered?
a. Is there a point after which a
secure attachment can no longer be formed?
b. What is the time of onset for the
critical period for attachment?
c. How stable are attachments formed
by the end of the first year of life?
d. When do infants express a
preference for an object?
96. In
the normal pattern of development, mother-infant interactions become increasingly
a. rigid
b. disengaged
c. fussy
d. coordinated

97. Coordination of infant-caregiver
interaction involves two related characteristics, which are _________.
a. causality and categorization
b. matching and synchrony
c. crying and smiling
d. trust and hope

98. Trust
develops as parents _____________________.
a. make
up innovative games to play with their baby
b. give
their child more time to explore the environment
c. get
d. interpret
their children’s signals correctly

99. When infants pay attention to their
caregivers, the caregivers attempt to stimulate them. When infants withdraw
attention, caregivers reduce their efforts at stimulation. This illustrates the
concept of ________.
a. synchrony
b. trust
c. communication repair
d. soothability

100. Within the process of communication,
which of the following patterns builds a sense of mutuality between the infant
and the caregiver?
a. attend, protest, anger
b. trust, mistrust, withdrawal
c. coordination, mismatch, repair
d. coordination, mismatch, protest

101. The
prime adaptive ego quality of infancy is__________.
a. caring
b. fidelity
c. will
d. hope

102. The
infant’s sense of self as __________ combined with the caregiver’s sensitivity
create the context for the emergence of hope.
a. emotional
b. a
permanent object
c. an
animate category
d. causal

103. _________________
refers to a general orientation of wariness toward people and objects.
a. Anxiety
b. Withdrawal
c. Fear
d. Apprehension

104. In the study of an intervention with
mothers and infants who were classified as having an anxious attachment, which
one of the following was an outcome of the intervention?
a. The mothers increased their
b. The mothers showed greater empathy
for their children.
c. The children improved in their
ability to regulate their behavior in coordination with their mother’s.
d. All of these.

105. Cross-cultural
observations suggest that infants are likely to be carried for longer periods
during the day and for more months during infancy when________.
a. women
marry at younger ages
b. families
live in extended family groups
c. men
help with childcare
d. infant
mortality rates are high

106. According to the text, many parental
behaviors that are important for the development of strong emotional bonds
between parents and infants are also important for__________.
a. fostering intellectual growth
b. achieving autonomy
c. fostering communication mismatch
d. producing early signs of depression
107. In
what way are fathers’ interactions likely to differ from mothers’ interactions
with their infants?
a. Fathers are more likely to respond
to the infants’ signals.
b. Fathers do more care giving, such
as feeding and bathing.
c. Fathers interact in more physically
playful ways.
d. Fathers focus more on fostering a
sense of comfort and trust.

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