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61. An infant who is able to use different
techniques for sucking from a breast and sucking from a bottle is demonstrating
a. sensorimotor intelligence
b. social referencing
c. object permanence
d. internalization

62. According to Piaget, the primary
mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy is______________________.
a. reciprocity
b. social
c. trust
versus mistrust
d. sensorimotor
63. According
to the theory, infants start out with some basic sensory, motor, and cognitive
structures. What might modify these structures?

a. experiences
that provide new information
b. experiences
that support and confirm the structures
c. gazing
and concentrating
d. parental

64. How do infants grow in their
understanding of causality?
a. through sensory and motor
b. through pointing and naming
c. through visual gazing
d. through memory and recall

65. Babies discover that if they drop a
spoon while sitting in the high chair, the spoon will fall to the floor and
make a noise. This is an example of ________.
a. emotional differentiation
b. introspection
c. reflexive behavior
d. sensorimotor causality
66. The example given in the text of the
emergence of the use of a spoon as a tool for eating illustrates which concept?

a. Motor
skills become integrated into purposeful problem-solving strategies.
b. Motor
skills develop independently from causal relations.
c. Infants
are limited in their exploration of spoons by what they have observed in their

d. Infants
are unable to coordinate means and ends.

67. Piaget considered ___________ to be
adaptive learning systems where cause and effect are linked through involuntary
a. circular reactions
b. coordination of means and ends
c. first habits
d. reflexes

68. What
are the first and last phases in the development of causal schemes during the
sensorimotor period?
a. reflexes;
experimentation with new means
b. reflexes;
c. first
habits; insight
d. first
habits; experimentation with means

69. In what way do the last two phases in
the development of causal schemes and experimentation with new means and
insight differ? In the last phase,
a. there is no experimentation, just
direct solution of a problem
b. there is no planning
c. babies use novel means to achieve
novel goals
d. experimentation is carried out
mentally rather than directly

70. Objects
do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view. This concept is
referred to as _________.
a. scheme
b. primitive causality
c. means-end relationship
d. object permanence

71. How
does one assess an infant’s grasp of object permanence?
a. Give
a baby a new object, something he has never seen before, and observe how he
plays with it.
b. Remove
an object from a baby’s view and observe whether or not the baby pursues the
c. Take an object away from a baby and
place it among two or three other objects. See if the baby can select the
familiar object.
d. Tell
the baby “bye-bye” and then see if he/she waves bye-bye to you.

72. Which
of the following abilities contributes to the formation of the scheme for the
permanent object?
a. mobility
b. gazing
c. asking
d. sucking

73. Renee Baillargeon has conducted a
number of studies to examine infants’ reactions to objects that are hidden from
view. Infants as young as 4 months
appear to be surprised when a toy car emerges from behind a screen when it
should have been blocked. What is the
basic purpose of her studies?
a. to detect dimensions of visual
acuity in infants
b. to determine an infant’s ability to
track a moving object
c. to demonstrate that infants have a
mental image of an object even when it is out of view
d. to present information about
infants sense of touch to soft objects

74. One
cognitive explanation for an infant’s experience of separation anxiety is the _____.
a. baby
lacks object permanence
b. baby
is insecurely attached
c. baby
has not yet learned to crawl after the caregiver
d. baby
has no ability to distinguish the caregiver from a stranger

75. Which of the following categorization
tasks can be performed by infants who are about 18 months old?
a. sorting insects into butterflies
and bees
b. sorting words into nouns and verbs
c. sorting yellow triangles and human
figures into two separate groups
d. none of these

76. What
is the adaptive role of the capacity for categorization?
a. It
allows you to approach each object as if it were completely novel.
b. It
offers a channel for the expression and interpretation of emotions.
c. It
allows for sensory and motor exploration of new objects in the environment.
d. It
reduces the amount of information that must be processed for each instance of
the category.

77. According
to Charles Darwin, what is one contribution of emotions to species
a. the
first indication of sensorimotor adaptation
b. to
provide a mechanism for species variability
c. to
communicate the perceived situation to others
d. to
enhance fitness

78. Peter
Wolff described seven states of arousal among newborn infants. Which of the
following is NOT one of these?
a. pride
b. crying
c. waking
d. irregular

79. Which of the following is the pattern
of development of emotion along the rage-anger dimension?
a. distress, anger, guilt
b. guilt, anger, distress
c. guilt, distress, anger
d. anger, guilt, distress

80. Erika’s son Jonathon is crying. The
cries are shrill and high pitched. There are very short pauses between bursts
of crying. What is the likely effect of this crying on Erika?
a. Erika finds this very upsetting and
thinks something may be seriously wrong with Jonathon.
b. Erika thinks this is a “fussy” cry
and does not pay much attention to it.
c. Erika becomes more relaxed
realizing that Jonathan probably needs to have his diaper changed.
d. Erika recognizes this cry as a
signal that Jonathon is waking up from his nap.

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