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61. Which of the following is an important
factor in a toddler’s ability to control impulses?
a. increased ability to withstand
delays in gratification
b. increased sensorimotor intelligence
c. development of running and jumping
ability
d. increased understanding of the
concept of distance

62. Marta’s son Roberto is very upset and
angry. He is overtired from their trip
to the zoo, and he just fell down and scraped his knee on the sidewalk. Marta brings Roberto on her lap, and tries to
comfort him by talking about all the fun they have had. What is she teaching Roberto?
a. She is teaching him how to use
language to gain control of intense feelings.

b. She is teaching him that big boys
shouldn’t cry.
c. She is teaching him that he has no
control over his feelings.
d. She is teaching him to feel afraid
of her.

63. How can children use fantasy play to
help them control their emotions?
a. avoid situations that are beyond
their real-world capabilities to control
b. intensify their impulses in
fantasies
c. create imaginary situations in
which disturbing problems can be expressed and resolved
d. create fantasies of being punished
for expression of impulses

64. Children learn a great deal about how
to control anger by ________.
a. watching their parents when they
are angry
b. having a pet
c. listening to verbal discussions
about anger
d. interacting with angry peers

65. What is the goal in the socialization
of the expression and control of angry feelings?
a. to let children know that anger is
never acceptable
b. to teach children how to find
acceptable expressions of anger without hurting themselves or others
c. to teach children that it is
acceptable to express anger to those outside the family but not toward family
members
d. to make sure that children
experience strong feelings of shame and doubt when they get angry
66. In
toddlerhood, the immediate goal of _______________ is to achieve compliance.
a. will
b. imitation
c. autonomy
d. discipline

67. The
three major kinds of discipline practices are power assertion, love withdrawal,
and________.
a. playfulness
b. avoidance
c. imitation
d. induction

68. The discipline strategy that involves
expressing disappointment, refusing to communicate, or turning away from the
child is called _________.
a. ego engagement
b. power assertion
c. love withdrawal
d. induction

69. Which of the following approaches to
disciplining a toddler is especially effective in promoting positive child
outcomes?
a. The discipline should take place
after a few hours so the child has time to think about the misdeed.
b. The discipline should be firm but
not overly harsh because harsh punishment is associated with maladaptive
consequences.
c. The discipline should be
administered over a long period of time so that the toddler really feels bad
and will learn not to do the misdeed again.

d. None of these.

70. Which of the following is a new
strategy a toddler might learn to help them manage feelings of frustration?
a. distracting themselves and
redirecting their attention to an alternate activity or toy
b. seeking comfort or distraction from
a parent or play companion
c. creating a pretend scenario in
which they soothe themselves through the use of a fantasy character
d. all of these

71. The ability to delay gratification of
impulses varies from toddler to toddler.
Which of the following is associated with differences in the ease or
difficulty children have in controlling their impulses?
a. Children who are more active and
aggressive have better control of their impulses.
b. Children who have a secure
attachment with their caregiver are better able to regulate their impulses.
c. Toddlers who can tell time are
better able to control their impulses.
d. Children who are indifferent to the
distress of others are better able to control their impulses.

72. In Mischel’s research, children who
had waited longer in an experimental situation that required self-imposed delay
of gratification at age 4 were described by their parents 10 years later
as _______than their peers.
a. having more difficulty using and
responding to reason
b. more distractible and less able to
concentrate
c. more frustrated
d. more verbally fluent and able to
plan ahead

73. Children who can express anger and not
lose control make gains in the development of _______.
a. trust
b. autonomy
c. imitation
d. language

74. The
ability to control impulses and _________ are two components of the
developmental task of self-control.
a. self-esteem
b. self-regulated goal attainment
c. cooperation
d. imitation in the absence of the
model

75. According to Vygotsky’s view,
__________ plays a key role in helping young children solve problems and attain
their goals.
a. assimilation
b. accommodation
c. egocentric speech
d. parallel play
76. Kareem is trying to put some blocks
together to make a tall tower. As he
works he says “Be careful, go slow.” This
is an example of the use of speech for ______________.
a. self-directed goal attainment
b. self-comforting
c. self-regulation
d. self-esteem

77. By the end of toddlerhood, children
who have been allowed to experience autonomy should______.
a. be hyperactive
b. have a strong foundation of
self-confidence
c. have strong fears associated with
behaving independently
d. be unusually capable in being able
to delay gratification

78. A general motivation that accounts for
children’s efforts to increase their competence through persistent
investigation and skillful problem solving is called _______.
a. emotional control
b. assertiveness
c. affiliation
d. mastery

79. Which
of the following statements is most characteristic of the early part of
toddlerhood?
a. I can beat you.
b. I will keep at it until I get it
done.
c. I feel great about doing it well.
d. No, no, no!

80. Which of the following is the
psychosocial crisis of toddlerhood?
a. imitation versus inferiority
b. initiative versus guilt
c. autonomy versus shame and doubt
d. peer group membership versus
despair

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