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41. Children who grow up in families that
are open to identifying and talking about emotions are more likely to
a. have mental health problems
b. show fearful behavior in the family
c. show sensitivity to others in
relationships outside their family
d. show less skill in identifying the
feelings of others

42. The capacity for pretense requires
that children understand the difference between ____ and _____.
a. signs; symbols
b. pretend; real
c. language; thinking
d. fantasy; play

43. A child’s ability to pretend provides
insight into his or her ____________.
a. temperament
b. attachment status
c. theory of mind
d. environmental resources

44. ______ is/are characterized by
repetition of motor activities.
a. Scaffolding
b. Sensorimotor play
c. Functional play
d. Imaginary friends

45. As children enter toddlerhood, they
begin to imitate parental activities when they are alone. This is the beginning
of which of the following?
a. sensorimotor play
b. parallel play
c. group play
d. symbolic play
46. In which type of play do children
coordinate their pretense by establishing a fantasy structure, taking roles,
agreeing on the make-believe meaning of props, and solving pretend problems?
a. solitary play
b. social play
c. social pretend play
d. sensorimotor play

47. Which of the following describes the
direction of fantasy play from the beginning of toddlerhood to the end?
a. The play becomes less planned and
more associational (one action sparks the rest).
b. The play relies increasingly on
real objects.
c. The play is based largely on the
imitation of real world characters.
d. The play increasingly involves the
creation of complex sequences of actions and roles.

48. Which of the following describes the
earliest phases of pretend play?
a. The child pretends to do some
action he or she has actually done or seen someone do in the past.
b. The child links a sequence of
actions together to tell a story.
c. The child uses an imaginary prop to
substitute for a real object.
d. The child creates an imaginary
49. As children become more skillful in
their fantasy play, they tend to do which of the following?
a. elaborate common, daily experiences
b. use real objects or play versions
of those objects as props in their pretense
c. benefit most from adult supervision
d. elaborate purely imagined
characters and situations

50. Dramatic
roleplaying in which a child takes on the role of another person or creates a
fantasy situation increases steadily from the ages of_______.
a. 1-3
b. 3-5
c. 5-7
d. 7-9

51. According to Vygotsky’s concept of
Zone of Proximal Development, children in pretend play ______.
a. reveal the areas of competence they
are striving to master
b. show the limits of their patience
c. play best with the children closest
to them physically
d. often regress in preschool play

52. Erikson viewed play as ______________.
a. a mechanism for dramatizing the
psychological conflicts that children are struggling with
b. providing insight into the
cognitive capacities for children who have some form of language delay
c. activity that enhances complex
language use and problem solving
d. a mechanism that allows a child to
assimilate reality and redefine it

53. Children who have well-developed
pretending skills________.
a. have advanced abilities to take the
point of view of others
b. are rather solitary and not
well-liked by peers
c. have relatively undeveloped
communication skills
d. have rather inflexible approaches
to problem solving

54. What social characteristic is
associated with well-developed pretending skills?
a. isolation
b. stubbornness
c. leadership
d. assertiveness

55. What advantage do toddlers who remain
in a stable child care arrangement have over children who move from setting to
a. They engage in more complex social
pretend play.
b. They have more advanced motor
c. They adapt more readily to new
d. None of these.

56. What is the beneficial role of adult
play companions for toddlers?
a. They keep the play reality
b. They decide the focus and length of
the play.
c. They contribute to the child’s
ability to create channels of shared meaning
d. They make sure the child does not
spend too much time alone.

57. How common is it for toddlers to have
imaginary companions?
a. very rare, less than 3% of all
toddlers have imaginary companions
b. only very gifted children have
imaginary companions
c. only bilingual children have
imaginary companions
d. none of these

58. Which of the following is a common
function of an imaginary companion?
a. promoting the scheme for the
permanent object
b. establishing a sense of secure
c. helping the child develop
categorization skills
d. helping the child work out
conflicts between right and wrong

59. Which of the following has been
defined as the ability to comply with a request, modify behavior according to
the situation, postpone action, and behave in a socially acceptable way?
a. superego control
b. self-control
c. social control
d. behavioral compliance

60. Which of the following are the most
helpful tools toddlers have for managing their impulses?
a. language and fantasy
b. self-awareness and activity level
c. temperament and attachment
d. sense of humor and motor skills

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