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21. Single word utterances accompanied by
gestures, actions, vocal intonation, and emotion are called ____.
a. holophrases
b. telegraphic speech
c. fast mapping
d. transformations

22. _______ refers to rules that guide the
combination of words and phrases in order to preserve meaning.
a. Grammar
b. Vocabulary
c. Language
d. Symbols

23. What is the difference between
language production and receptive language?
a. The first is the ability to
understand meaning; the second is the ability to convey one’s meaning.
b. The first is the ability to
communicate without language; the second is the ability to communicate with
c. The first is the ability to
communicate with language; the second is the ability to understand the language
of others.
d. The first is the ability to speak;
the second is the ability to use gestures.

24. What is telegraphic speech?
a. one word expressions
b. whining, cooing, and grunting
c. two-word sentences
d. vocalization without meaning

25. “Allgone Daddy,” and
“Go ByeBye” are examples of ____________________.
a. gestures
b. holophrases
c. fast mapping
d. telegraphic speech

26. Which statement best characterizes
early two-word expressions for children across cultures?
a. There is great variation in the types
of words and word combinations used within each culture.
b. Children in all cultures say
“allgone” or its equivalent as one of their very first two-word
c. Children rarely make reference to
movement or action words.
d. Only English-speaking children use
two-word sentences.

27. What are grammatical transformations?
a. rules for word order and for adding
modifiers or inflections to convey meaning
b. rules for two-word sentences
c. rules for polite speech
d. ways of expanding on a young
child’s language

28. A three-year-old may say, “I
runned fast.” This is an example of _________________.
a. two-word sentences
b. overregularization
c. expansion
d. scaffolding

29. Which of the following is the earliest
milestone in language development?
a. vocabulary of more than 75 words
b. two-word sentences
c. responding to commands such as
“Show me your nose”
d. frustration expressed when not
understood by adults

30. Marina
has a vocabulary of over 50 words and uses two-word phrases. She likes to talk
and clearly enjoys participating in social talk. About how old is Marina?
a. 12 months
b. 18 months
c. 24 months
d. 36 months

31. In what way(s) does language play a
critical role in adolescent and adult psychosocial crises, especially the
establishment of group identity, intimacy, and generativity?
a. attain levels of disclosure that
sustain significant personal relationships
b. serves as a mechanism for resolving
c. serves as a mechanism for building
a sense of cohesiveness within groups
d. all of these

32. Among the choices below, which is the
most important factor that caregivers contribute for the cognitive growth of
their toddler?
a. nutritious meals
b. opportunities for verbal interaction
c. providing for safety
d. enrollment in childcare

33. Adults in white, middle-class, Western
societies tend to use which of the following techniques when speaking to
toddlers in order to facilitate the children’s language acquisition?
a. They use simplified, redundant
utterances that correspond with the child’s interests and comprehension
b. They use long, complex sentences to
extend the child’s language abilities.
c. They emphasize the future and the
past so that the child becomes aware of time in his/her speech.
They tease their children, particularly
in the presence of others, in order to give the children a chance to develop a
quick wit.

34. What is a benefit of bilingualism to a
a. expands access to concepts
b. there is no benefit, this causes
the child to be confused
c. expands sociability
d. the child can hold dual citizenship

35. During the time when José was learning
to talk, his parents spoke to him a great deal, and José and his parents often
took turns in their interactions. One of
the parents was often in the same room with José. When Mark was learning to talk, his parents
were mostly silent, waiting for him to say things. Usually they were in a different room and
shouted commands such as “Play with your stacker.” What would you predict the relationship between
José and Mark’s IQ would be at 3 years
of age?
a. There would be no difference in IQ.
b. Mark would have a higher IQ.
c. José would have a higher verbal IQ.
d. José would have a higher verbal IQ,
and Stephane would have a higher nonverbal IQ.

36. Recent research has shown that 3- and
4-year-old children are ______ before incorporating words into their
a. unable to assess the expertise of
their language partner
b. able to assess the expertise of
their language partner
c. under stress
d. able to grasp the complete meaning

37. Timmy says: “Allgone daddy,”
and his mother says: “Yes, Timmy, daddy has gone to work.” This is an
example of ________.
a. grammar
b. lack of match between parent and
c. expansion
d. motherese

38. What is a child’s language partner’s
purpose in using expansion and prompting when interacting with a toddler?
a. to show the child that speaking
well does not require the use of sentences that are grammatically correct
b. to increase the child’s ability to
fastmap words
c. to help the child communicate more
effectively by expanding on or asking the child to elaborate on something of
interest to him/her
d. to model a problem solving strategy
that the child can use when dealing with complex situations

39. Which of the following has been
identified as an especially important activity in preparing a child for
literacy and for expanding a child’s language skills?
a. drawing with friends
b. reading silently
c. watching television
d. reading aloud

40. Which of the following predicts the
level of a child’s language development at ages 2 and 3?
a. the child’s age at jumping
b. playing social games as an infant
c. conversations between mother and
daycare teacher
d. when the child began to babble

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