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1. Which
is the earliest component of gender identification to be achieved?
a.
gender-role standards
b.
gender label
c.
gender constancy
d. gender
preference

2. Some parents believe that boys
should be assertive and girls should try to please others. This is an example
of ____________________.
a. a
gender-role standard
b. a
gender label
c. a
gender preference
b.
none of these

3. Which of the following theories
views moral behavior as a result of repeated associations between valued
behavior and reinforcements?
a. learning
theory
b. psychoanalytic
theory
c. cognitive-developmental
theory
d. social-role
theory

4. Cognitive developmental theorists
and learning theorists agree that which of the following guides a very young
child’s moral judgments?
a. conscience
b.
empathy
c.
rewards and punishments
d. a
sense of justice

5. When children see rules as a
product of cooperative agreements, they are said to have achieved a level of
____________________ morality.
a.
schematic
b.
heteronomous
c.
autonomous
d.
overt

6. A toddler offers her own favorite
cuddly blanket to her father when he hurts his leg. This is an example of which
type of empathy?
a. empathy
for another’s feelings
b.
egocentric empathy
c. empathy
for another’s life conditions
d. global
empathy

7. Which statement best reflects a 4
to 6 year old child’s social perspective-taking ability? Early-school-age
children __________________.
a. assume
that everyone involved views a situation just as they do
b.
realize that people can take each
other’s point of view into account before they decide to act
c. realize
that all the people involved in the situation may see it differently
d. all
of these are correct

8. Research indicates that one
consequence for children of viewing televised violence may be _____________.
a. an
increase in the child’s dislike of violence
b. an
increase in the child’s repertoire of aggressive behaviors
c.
a decrease in the child’s need to be
aggressive
d.
an increase in the child’s fear of
his/her father
, B

9. Which of the following may be
considered an example of how television could promote optimal development?
a. watching
television might lead to expectations that problems can be easily solved
b.
watching television might lower a
child’s self-esteem
c. watching
television might reduce a child’s social interactions
d. watching
television might help children experience empathy for others

10. Which of the following is a consequence of watching
television?
a. It
decreases participation in community and recreational activities.
b. It
helps children view the world as a safe, caring place.
c. It
increases social interaction.
d. It
decreases interest in commercial products such as toys, candy, and cereal.

11. The text treats the ___________ as a
theory that links a person’s understanding about the nature of the world, the
nature of the self, and the meaning of interactions between the self and the
environment.
a. reward
structure
b. gender
preference
c. superego
d. self-concept

12. William
James differentiated the “I” and “me” as the components of the self. What is
the “me”?
a. the
self as knower
b. the
self that imitates behavior
c. the
self that reflects upon its own qualities
d. the
self as an object that can be described by others

13. Which
of the following statements about group play is most accurate?
a. Group
games require a referee or umpire in order to be played fairly.
b. Group
games usually involve a fantasy element.
c.
Group games require strict division of
roles and responsibilities.
d. Group
games usually involve opposing teams.

14. Group games permit children to shift roles. This
contributes to the development of _________.
a. out-group
attitudes
b. perspective-taking
skills
c. self-esteem
d. concrete
operational thought

15. Which
of the following statements about friendship during the early school age period
is most accurate?
a. Children
of this age rarely argue or quarrel during play.
b. Boys
and girls usually play together.
c. Boys
and girls tend to pick friends of the same sex.
d. Friendships
are based on loyalty and trust.

16. Which
of the following is the best definition for the psychosocial concept of
initiative?
a. sense
of pride in a job well-done
b. active
investigation of the environment
c. anxiety
caused by having violated a cultural norm
d. a
caring orientation toward relationships

17. What
is an adaptive outcome of experiencing guilt?
a. curiosity
and experimentation
b. a
sense of remorse and attempts to set things right
c. intensive
self-blame and feelings of worthlessness
d. there
is no adaptive outcome related to experiences of guilt

18. Which term refers to the psychological
mechanism that signals when a violation of a forbidden behavior or thought is
about to occur?
a. fixation
b.
guilt
c.
phobia
d.
mistrust
19. Which of the following motives for
parental identification is aroused by the following statement: “You and your
father have the same sense of humor.”
a. perceived
similarity
b. fear
of loss of love
c. identification
with the future
d. identification
with the aggressor

20. Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a motive
for parental identification?
a. need
for status
b. identification
with the aggressor
c. fear
of loss of love
d. fear
of failure

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