is the earliest component of gender identification to be achieved?
2. Some parents believe that boys
should be assertive and girls should try to please others. This is an example
none of these
3. Which of the following theories
views moral behavior as a result of repeated associations between valued
behavior and reinforcements?
4. Cognitive developmental theorists
and learning theorists agree that which of the following guides a very young
child’s moral judgments?
rewards and punishments
sense of justice
5. When children see rules as a
product of cooperative agreements, they are said to have achieved a level of
6. A toddler offers her own favorite
cuddly blanket to her father when he hurts his leg. This is an example of which
type of empathy?
for another’s feelings
for another’s life conditions
7. Which statement best reflects a 4
to 6 year old child’s social perspective-taking ability? Early-school-age
that everyone involved views a situation just as they do
realize that people can take each
other’s point of view into account before they decide to act
that all the people involved in the situation may see it differently
of these are correct
8. Research indicates that one
consequence for children of viewing televised violence may be _____________.
increase in the child’s dislike of violence
increase in the child’s repertoire of aggressive behaviors
a decrease in the child’s need to be
an increase in the child’s fear of
9. Which of the following may be
considered an example of how television could promote optimal development?
television might lead to expectations that problems can be easily solved
watching television might lower a
television might reduce a child’s social interactions
television might help children experience empathy for others
10. Which of the following is a consequence of watching
decreases participation in community and recreational activities.
helps children view the world as a safe, caring place.
increases social interaction.
decreases interest in commercial products such as toys, candy, and cereal.
11. The text treats the ___________ as a
theory that links a person’s understanding about the nature of the world, the
nature of the self, and the meaning of interactions between the self and the
James differentiated the “I” and “me” as the components of the self. What is
self as knower
self that imitates behavior
self that reflects upon its own qualities
self as an object that can be described by others
of the following statements about group play is most accurate?
games require a referee or umpire in order to be played fairly.
games usually involve a fantasy element.
Group games require strict division of
roles and responsibilities.
games usually involve opposing teams.
14. Group games permit children to shift roles. This
contributes to the development of _________.
of the following statements about friendship during the early school age period
is most accurate?
of this age rarely argue or quarrel during play.
and girls usually play together.
and girls tend to pick friends of the same sex.
are based on loyalty and trust.
of the following is the best definition for the psychosocial concept of
of pride in a job well-done
investigation of the environment
caused by having violated a cultural norm
caring orientation toward relationships
is an adaptive outcome of experiencing guilt?
sense of remorse and attempts to set things right
self-blame and feelings of worthlessness
is no adaptive outcome related to experiences of guilt
18. Which term refers to the psychological
mechanism that signals when a violation of a forbidden behavior or thought is
about to occur?
19. Which of the following motives for
parental identification is aroused by the following statement: “You and your
father have the same sense of humor.”
of loss of love
with the future
with the aggressor
20. Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a motive
for parental identification?
with the aggressor
of loss of love