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61. According to Damon and Hart, the
organizing principle that integrates aspects of the self concept during middle
and later childhood is __________________.
a. beliefs and plans
b. interpersonal goals
c. comparative assessments
d. categorical identifications

62. The natural way that children, from
ages 4 to 6, become more aware that people have different points of view is
detailed in the theory of ________________.
a. mind
b. cognition
c. thought
d. morality

63. The ability to appreciate that what
you know or believe to be true is different from what others know and believe
to be true is a salient feature of ____________________.
a. self-awareness
b. empathy
c. cognition
d. jealousy

64. A person’s evaluation about his or her
own worthiness is called __________________.
a. self-esteem
b. egocentrism
c. self theory
d. dissonance

65. People with low self-esteem will see
any failure as evidence of their ___________________.
a. contextual dissonance
b. lack of worth
c. sense of efficacy
d. subjective self concept

66. People who have high self-esteem
a. have strong positive evaluations of
all of their abilities
b. find that failure increases their
feelings of doubt about their basic worth
c. use a variety of strategies to
minimize the importance of negative feedback
d. derive this sense of self-worth
primarily through pretend activities

67. Gillian does not feel like anyone
likes her and she feels ignored, rejected, and scorned. Gillian suffers from
low _____________.
a. self-esteem
b. creativity
c. sense of efficacy
d. persistence

68. Which statement about self-esteem
among early-school-age children is correct?
a. Early-school-age boys are more
critical of their abilities than early-school-age girls.
b. Early-school-age children are
exposed to low levels of peer criticism that challenge self-esteem.
c. Early-school-age children feel less
guilty about violating rules and norms than younger children.
d. Early-school-age children are
likely to experience feelings of depression and worthlessness that may
crystallize into a scheme for low self-esteem.

69. Ring-Around-the-Rosie, London Bridge,
and Farmer-in-the-Dell are examples of _______________.
a. sensorimotor play
b. group games
c. team sports
d. social pretend play

70. Group games permit children to shift
roles. This contributes to which of the following?
a. perspective-taking abilities
b. fantasy
c. emotional regulation
d. self-esteem

71. By the age of 4 or 5, children who have stable friendships
become skilled in ______________.
a. coordinating their interactions
with friends
b. creating elaborate pretend games
c. being willing to modify their play
preferences so that both members in the friendships have a chance to enjoy the
kinds of play they like best
d. all of these

72. Which of the following statements is
true about friendships during early school age?

a. Children tend to evaluate each
other on the basis of intentions which are usually seen as positive.
b. Children tend to have a rather
rigid approach to issues of social responsibility, so that peer play is
frequently disrupted by quarrels, “tattling,” and hard feelings about
c. Children like to let adults “sit
in” on peer play sessions so that they can benefit from the adult’s advanced
play and problem solving.
d. Children of this age prefer
mixed-sex play groups.

73. Why is hopscotch so popular with
early-school-age children in many cultures?

c. The game provides a sense of safety
and security.
b. There is no fantasy element so
children can focus on reality.
c. The game symbolizes perils of
childhood and the need for balance while providing opportunities for
d. It is an easy game with few
opportunities for failure.

74. What is one implication of the fact
that girls and boys tend to form same-sex friendship groups?
a. Girls never experience leadership
among friends.
b. Girls and boys develop distinct
peer-communication patterns.
c. Boys learn to be better listeners
and acquire valued skills for building group consensus.
d. Girls and boys lack gender identity
so there are no same-sex friendships formed.

75. Children are likely to seek others of
the same sex as play companions because __________.
a. they believe these children will be
kinder to them
b. they believe these children will
provide diverse mental representations of possible activities
c. parents guide them into same-sex
play groups
d. they believe these other children
will have the same play preferences they have

76. Boys and girls tend to use different
strategies to achieve ________ in their same-sex friendship groups.
a. dominance
b. self-efficacy
c. continuity
d. sensorimotor equilibrium

77. Which of the following is true about
the groups girls and boys prefer during early school age?
a. Girls prefer two-person groups,
while boys prefer larger groups.
b. Boys prefer two-person groups,
while girls prefer larger groups.
c. Girls prefer mixed-sex groups while
boys prefer same-sex groups.
d. Boys prefer mixed-sex groups while
girls prefer same-sex groups.

78. What is the psychosocial crisis of
early school age?
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. industry versus inferiority
d. initiative versus guilt

79. Young children often ask questions
about why things are as they are, how things began, and what will happen in the
future. This is a sign of ________________.
a. initiative
b. trust
c. autonomy
d. creativity

80. Holger is 6 years old. He had a tooth pulled this afternoon. His mother
just tucked him into bed promising him that the tooth fairy would be coming for
the tooth while he slept. Holger puts pillows under his blanket and moves into
the closet so he can see the tooth fairy take his tooth. This is an example of
a. mistrust
b. initiative
c. contextual dissonance
d. parental identification

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